Biedermeier

art movement

Biedermeier was an time in the arts, which occurred between 1815 and 1848. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna ended the Napoleonic Wars. In 1848, there were revolutions in many European Countries. Between 1815 and 1848, the middle class grew. During that time, the forces that had been active before the French Revolution rose to power again. Politically, the times were very hard, and there was a lot of repression. For this reason, most of the arts focused on apolitical life at home.

Carl Spitzweg: Sunday Walk, 1841
Ferdinand Waldmüller - Die Heimkehr des Landmasses (the return of the peasant), 1833, is a typical genre painting of the time
Eduard Gärtner - Zimmerbild shows a typical interior portrait, of 1849.

In painting, Biedermeier focused on landscapes, portraits, and perhaps still lifes, or genre paintings. There are almost no religious or historical paintings. Many painters wanted to copy or to resemble 17th century Dutch painters. Many paintings were realist, almost like a modern-day photograph. Interior portraits were typical for Biedermeier: there the idea was to show a fully furnished room, in all its details.

In music, there's no epoch called Biedermeier: the only thing that is perhaps worth mentioning that playing music at home, in the family became important, this is known as house concert.

In theatre, the main focus was entertainment, not like the Age of Enlightenment. Also in addition to the national theatres, a number of smaller theatres started to exist.