Bloody Sunday (1972)
Bloody Sunday (Irish: Domhnach na Fola)—sometimes called the Bogside Massacre—happened on 30 January 1972, in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. During this protest against internment, some protesters threw stones. 26 unarmed civil rights protesters and spectators were shot by British soldiers. Thirteen males, most of whom were in their teens and twenties, were killed. A fourteenth man died from his injuries four-and-a-half months later. Two protesters were also hit by army vehicles. Five of the wounded were shot in the back. The incident happened during a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march. The soldiers involved were members of the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment (1 Para).
|Part of the Troubles|
|Location||Londonderry, Northern Ireland|
|Date||30 January 1972 |
|Weapons||L1A1 SLR rifles|
|Deaths||14 (13 immediate, 1 died months later)|
|14+ (12 from gunshots, two from vehicle impact, others from rubber bullets and flying debris)|
Two investigations have been held by the British government. The Widgery Tribunal, held soon after the event, said that the soldiers and British authorities were almost reckless. Critics said the report made it seem like the British did nothing wrong. The Saville Inquiry was held in 1998 to investigate the events a second time. The inquiry took 12 years. The report was made public on 15 June 2010. The report said that some soldiers were wrong to have shot the protesters. The report found that all of the people shot were unarmed, and that the killings were "unjustified". When the Saville report was published, the British prime minister, David Cameron, said sorry to the victims.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army's (IRA) war against the partition of Ireland had begun in the two years before the incident. The incident helped the IRA to recruit new members. Bloody Sunday remains among the most important events in the Troubles of Northern Ireland. The reason it is seen as so important is because those who died were shot by the British Army rather than paramilitaries.
- "CAIN: Posters – Examples of Bloody Sunday Posters". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. 30 January 1972. Retrieved 17 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Faoiseamh agus Domhnach na Fola". The Irish Times. 6 June 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Eamonn McCann (2006). The Bloody Sunday Inquiry – The Families Speak Out. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-2510-6. pp. 4–6
- 'Bloody Sunday', Derry 30 January 1972 – Names of the Dead and Injured CAIN Web Service, 23 March 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- Extracts from 'The Road to Bloody Sunday' by Dr Raymond McClean. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
- "CAIN: [Widgery Report] Report of the Tribunal appointed to inquire into events on Sundy 30 January 1972". cain.ulster.ac.uk.
- David Granville (28 July 2005). "More 'butcher' than 'grocer'". The Morning Star. Retrieved 18 May 2007. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Nick Cohen (1 February 2004). "Schooled in scandal". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 May 2007. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "1972: 'Bloody Sunday' report excuses Army". BBC News. 19 April 1972. Retrieved 18 May 2007. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- McDonald, Henry; Norton-Taylor, Richard (10 June 2010). "Bloody Sunday killings to be ruled unlawful". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Bloody Sunday report published". BBC. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Peter Pringle and Philip Jacobson (2000). Those Are Real Bullets, Aren't They?. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-316-8. P. 293: "Youngsters who had seen their friends die that day flocked to join the IRA..."