Burmese amber fossils

Late Cretaceous amber from Northern Myanmar

Burmese amber, or Burmite or Kachin amber, is amber from the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar. It is important for its fossils from the earliest part of the Upper Cretaceous, in the Cenomanian age, 99 million years ago. The amber has been commercially exploited since the first century AD. Research on the deposit may fund internal conflict in Myanmar.

Holotype specimen of Burmomyrma rossi, showing typical dark-red colouration and opacity

The amber has flora and fauna especially arthropods such as insects and arachnids. There are also also birds, lizards, snakes, frogs and fragments of dinosaur remains.

The fossils arachnids in the amber include:

15 families of myriapods are in the amber

8 families of Entognatha are known

29 orders of insects are known, including:

And 16 more smaller families.

Other groups of invertebrates include:

There are some vertebrates:

CT scan of mummified bird wing in amber

ReferencesEdit

  1. Xing, Lida + others (2016). "A feathered dinosaur tail with primitive plumage trapped in mid-Cretaceous amber". Current Biology. 26 (24): 3352–3360. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.008. PMID 27939315.
  2. Xing, Lida + others (2017). "A mid-Cretaceous enantiornithine (Aves) hatchling preserved in Burmese amber with unusual plumage". Gondwana Research. 49: 264–277. Bibcode:2017GondR..49..264X. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2017.06.001.
  3. Xing, Lida + others (2018). "A flattened enantiornithine in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber: morphology and preservation". Science Bulletin. 63 (4): 235–243. doi:10.1016/j.scib.2018.01.019.
  4. Xing, Lida + others (2019). "A fully feathered enantiornithine foot and wing fragment preserved in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 927. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9..927X. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37427-4. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6353931. PMID 30700773.
  5. Xing, Lida + others (2019). "A mid-Cretaceous enantiornithine foot and tail feather preserved in Burmese amber". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 15513. Bibcode:2019NatSR...915513X. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-51929-9. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6820775. PMID 31664115.
  6. Xing, Lida; McKellar, Ryan C.; O'Connor, Jingmai K. (2020). "An unusually large bird wing in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber". Cretaceous Research. 110: 104412. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104412.
  7. Xing, Lida + others (2016). "Mummified precocial bird wings in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber". Nature Communications. 7 (1): 12089. Bibcode:2016NatCo...712089X. doi:10.1038/ncomms12089. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 4931330. PMID 27352215.
  8. Xing, Lida (2019). "A new Enantiornithine bird with unusual pedal proportions found in amber". Current Biology. 29 (14): 2396–2401. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.077. PMID 31303484.
  9. Xing, Lida (2020). "Hummingbird-sized dinosaur from the Cretaceous period of Myanmar". Nature. 579 (7798): 245–249. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2068-4. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 32161388.
  10. Xing, Lida; Stanley, Edward L.; Bai, Ming; Blackburn, David C. (2018). "The earliest direct evidence of frogs in wet tropical forests from Cretaceous Burmese amber". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 8770. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.8770X. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26848-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6002357. PMID 29904068.
  11. Xing, Lida + others (2018). "A mid-Cretaceous embryonic-to-neonate snake in amber from Myanmar". Science Advances. 4 (7): eaat5042. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.5042X. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aat5042. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 6051735. PMID 30035227.
  12. Arnold, E. Nicholas; Poinar, George (2008). "A 100 million year old gecko with sophisticated adhesive toe pads, preserved in amber from Myanmar". Zootaxa. 1847 (1): 62. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1847.1.5. ISSN 1175-5334.
  13. Daza, Juan D.; Stanley, Edward L.; Wagner, Philipp; Bauer, Aaron M.; Grimaldi, David A. (2016). "Mid-Cretaceous amber fossils illuminate the past diversity of tropical lizards". Science Advances. 2 (3): e1501080. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E1080D. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501080. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 4783129. PMID 26973870.
  14. Matsumoto, Ryoko; Evans, Susan E. (2018). Smith, Thierry (ed.). "The first record of albanerpetontid amphibians (Amphibia: Albanerpetontidae) from East Asia". PLOS ONE. 13 (1): e0189767. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1389767M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0189767. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5752013. PMID 29298317.