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Flora

inventory of plant species in a given region
Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.

In botany, flora (plural: floras or florae) has two meanings.

The first meaning refers to all plant life in an area or time period (especially the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life). The corresponding term for animal life is fauna.

The second meaning refers to a book or other work which describes the plant species in an area or time period, with the aim of allowing identification.

The term flora comes from the Latin language. Flora was the goddess of flowers in Roman mythology.

Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, special environment, or climate. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of an historic era as in fossil flora.

Bacterial organisms are sometimes included in a flora [1] [2]. Other times, the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately.

Floras (in the second sense)Edit

Classic florasEdit

Europe
India
  • Hortus indicus malabaricus, Hendrik van Rheede 1683–1703
Indonesia
  • Flora Javae, Carl Ludwig Blume and Joanne Baptista Fischer. 1828.

Modern florasEdit

AmericasEdit

Caribbean
  • Britton, N. L., and Percy Wilson. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Volume V, Part 1: Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Pandanales to Thymeleales. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1924.
Central & South America
North America
  • Flora of North America
  • Kearney, Thomas H. Arizona Flora. University of California Press, 1940.
  • Hickman, James C., editor. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, 1993.
  • Hultén, Eric. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A Manual of the Vascular Plants. Stanford University Press, 1968.
  • Radford, Albert E. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Hitchcock, C. Leo, and Arthur Cronquist. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, 1973.
  • Chadde, Steve W., and Steve Chadde. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora. 2nd ed. Pocketflora Press, 2002. ISBN 0-9651385-5-0
  • P. D. Strausbaugh and Earl L. Core. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Seneca Books Inc., 1964. ISBN 0-89092-010-9
  • Ann Fouler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block. The Plants of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8122-3535-5
  • Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. In three volumes. Dover Publications, 1913, 1970. ISBN 0-486-22642-5

AsiaEdit

China and Japan
Southeast Asia
  • Flora of Thailand
  • Florae Siamensis Enumeratio
  • Flora Malesiana
  • Flora of the Malay Peninsula
  • Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-Nam
Indian region and Sri Lanka
  • Flora of Bhutan
  • Flora of the Presidency of Madras by J.S. Gamble (1915-36)
  • Flora of Nepal
  • Bengal Plants by D. Prain (1903)
  • Flora of the upper Gangetic plains by J. F. Duthie (1903-29)
  • Botany of Bihar and Orissa by H.H. Haines (1921-25)
  • Flora of British India (1872-1897) by Sir J.D. Hooker
Middle East and western Asia
  • Flora of Turkey
  • Flora Iranica
  • Flora Palaestina:
    • M. Zohary (1966). Flora Palaestina part 1.
    • M. Zohary (1972). Flora Palaestina part 2.
    • N. Feinbrun (1978). Flora Palaestina part 3.
    • N. Feinbrun (1986). Flora Palaestina part 4.
    • A. Danin, (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area (Flora Palaestina part 5).
    • Online updates: http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en&action=showfile&fileid=14005

AustralasiaEdit

  • Flora of Australia series
  • Flora of New Zealand series:
    • Allan, H.H. 1961, reprinted 1982. Flora of New Zealand. Volume I: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01056-3.
    • Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970, reprinted 1976. Flora of New Zealand. Volume II: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Monocotyledons except Graminae. ISBN 0-477-01889-0.
    • Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. 1980. Flora of New Zealand Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous & Spathaceous Monocotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01041-5.
    • Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.;Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-02529-3.
    • Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000. Flora of New Zealand Volume V: Grasses. ISBN 0-478-09331-4.
    • Volumes I-V: First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcribed by A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres.
  • Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens. ISBN 0-477-01266-3.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1986. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume I. ISBN 0-477-02530-7.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1988. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume II. ISBN 0-477-01353-8.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A.;Racine, M.M. 1994. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume III. ISBN 0-477-01642-1.
  • Sykes, W.R.; West, C.J.; Beever, J.E.; Fife, A.J. 2000. Kermadec Islands Flora - Special Edition. ISBN 0-478-09339-X.

Pacific IslandsEdit

  • Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Warren L. Wagner and Derral R. Herbst (1991) + suppl. [3]
  • Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie
  • Flore de la Polynésie Française (J. Florence, vol. 1 & 2, 1997 & 2004)

EuropeEdit

British Isles

Africa and MadagascarEdit

  • Flore du Gabon
  • Flore du Cameroun
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • Flora Capensis
  • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of South Africa
  • Flore du Rwanda
  • Flore de Madagascar et des Comores

Related pagesEdit

  • Biome — a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities.
  • Vegetation — a general term for the plant life of a region.
  • Fauna

Other websitesEdit