science of plant life
Botany is the study of plants. It is a science. It is a branch of biology, and is also called plant biology. It is sometimes called phytology. Scientists who study botany are called botanists. They study how plants work.
Branches of botanyEdit
- Agronomy—Application of plant science to crop production
- Bryology—Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
- Forestry—Forest management and related studies
- Horticulture—Cultivated plants
- Micropaleontology—Pollen and spores
- Paleobotany—Fossil plants
- Phytochemistry—Plant secondary chemistry and chemical processes
- Phytopathology—Plant diseases
- Plant anatomy—Cell and tissue structure
- Plant ecology—Role of plants in the environment
- Plant genetics—Genetic inheritance in plants
- Plant morphology—Structure and life cycles
- Plant physiology—Life functions of plants
- Plant systematics—Classification and naming of plants
University departments of botany are often now merged into a wider group of specialities, including cell biology, genetics, ecology, cytology, palaeontology and other topics. This gives students and research workers access to a wider education and a wider range of research techniques.
- Theophrastus, Hellenistic philosopher, wrote books, systematized botanical descriptions.
- Ibn al-Baitar (d. 1248), Andalusian-Arab scientist, author of one of the largest botanical encyclopedias.
- Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) was a French naturalist, Intendant of the Jardin du Roi ('King's Garden'). Buffon published thirty-five volumes of his Histoire naturelle during his lifetime, and nine more volumes were published after his death.
- Luther Burbank (1849–1926), American botanist, horticulturist, and a pioneer in agricultural science.
- Charles Darwin (1809–1882) wrote eight important books on botany after he published the Origin of Species.
- Al-Dinawari (828–896), Kurdish botanist, historian, geographer, astronomer, mathematician, and founder of Arabic botany.
- Conrad Gessner (1516–1565) was a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer.
- Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817–1911), English botanist and explorer. Second winner of Darwin Medal.
- Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of Binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology.
- Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), Augustinian priest and scientist, and is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants.
- John Ray (1627–1705) was an English naturalist, the father of English natural history.
- G. Ledyard Stebbins (1906–2000) was an American botanist and geneticist. He was one of the leading evolutionary biologists of the 20th century.
- Eduard Strasburger (1844–1912) was a Polish-German professor who was one of the most famous botanists of the 19th century.
- Nikolai Vavilov (1887–1943) was a Russian botanist and geneticist. He showed how and where crop plants evolved. He studied and improved wheat, corn, and other cereal crops.