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Butane

An alkane with four carbon atoms

Butane is an organic compound with the chemical formula C
4
H
10
. It is an alkane with four carbon atoms. It is used as a fuel (sometimes with propane) and in aerosol cans.

Butane
Skeletal formula of butane with all implicit hydrogens shown
Skeletal formula of butane with all carbon and hydrogen atoms shown
Ball-and-stick model of the butane molecule
Space-filling model of the butane molecule
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Butane[3]
Systematic IUPAC name
Tetracarbane (never recommended[3])
Other names
Butyl hydride[1]
Quartane[2]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
Beilstein Reference 969129
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.136
EC Number 203-448-7
E number E943a (glazing agents, ...)
Gmelin Reference 1148
KEGG
MeSH {{{value}}}
PubChem {{{value}}}
RTECS number EJ4200000
UNII
UN number 1011
SMILES {{{value}}}
Properties
C4H10
Molar mass 58.12 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Gasoline-like or natural gas-like[1]
Density 2.48 kg/m3 (at 15 °C (59 °F))
Melting point −140 to −134 °C; −220 to −209 °F; 133 to 139 K
Boiling point −1 to 1 °C; 30 to 34 °F; 272 to 274 K
61 mg L−1 (at 20 °C (68 °F))
log P 2.745
Vapor pressure ~170 kPa at 283 K [4]
kH 11 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
Conjugate acid Butanium
-57.4·10−6 cm3/mol
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−126.3–−124.9 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−2.8781–−2.8769 MJ mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 98.49 J K−1 mol−1
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
1
0
 
Explosive limits 1.8–8.4%
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
none[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Aerosol spray cans often contain Butane

Uses of ButaneEdit

Butane is sold in canisters, for cooking and camping. It is also used as fuel in cigarette lighters, and as propellant in aerosol sprays or deodorants. Some kinds of Butane are used in refrigerators.

Mixtures with Propane are known as LPG.

DangersEdit

Butane can be hazardous. Inhalation can lead to death by asphyxiation due to displacement of oxygen in the lungs. Contact with the skin can lead to frostbite. If the gas is mixed with air and ignighted it is prone to explode like many other fuels that are volatile

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0068". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. Hofmann, August Wilhelm Von (1 January 1867). "I. On the action of trichloride of phosphorus on the salts of the aromatic monamines". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 15: 54–62. doi:10.1098/rspl.1866.0018. http://rspl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/15/54. Retrieved 20 September 2018. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Front Matter". Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 4. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Similarly, the retained names ‘ethane’, ‘propane’, and ‘butane’ were never replaced by systematic names ‘dicarbane’, ‘tricarbane’, and ‘tetracarbane’ as recommended for analogues of silane, ‘disilane’; phosphane, ‘triphosphane’; and sulfane, ‘tetrasulfane’.
  4. W. B. Kay (1940). "Pressure-Volume-Temperature Relations for n-Butane". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 32 (3): 358–360. doi:10.1021/ie50363a016. 

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