The Cairngorms (Scottish Gaelic: Am Monadh Ruadh) is a group of mountains in the eastern part of Highlands of Scotland. It is usually linked with the mountain of the Cairn Gorm. The Cairngorms became part of Scotland's second national park (the Cairngorms National Park) on 1 September 2003. It was part of the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Cairn Gorm view over Coire an t-Sneachda, a glacial cirque
|Location||Highland, Aberdeenshire and Moray, Scotland|
|Nearest city||Inverness, Aberdeen|
|Area||292 km2 (113 sq mi)|
|Governing body||Scottish Natural Heritage|
The Cairngorms is made of high plateau that is about 1000–1200 m above sea level. They have domed summits that  that are around 1300 m. high. Many of the summits have tors. These are basically free-standing rock formations that stand on top of the rocky landscape.
The plateau is also home to Britain's only herd of reindeer. Next to the central massif are the remainders of the Caledonian forest. These forests support many species that are not found anywhere elsewhere in the United Kingdom. These include red squirrels, pine marten, wood ants, Scottish crossbill, capercaillie and crested tit.
If you look from Aviemore on a clear evening, the granite screes of Lairig Ghru and Braeriach do glow a warm red in the sun. The name Am Monadh Ruadh still lives among the oldest folk of Strath Spey, but long ago, outsiders had replaced it with 'the Cairngorms', on maps and in guide books.— Watson 
The English language name for the area is Cairngorms. It came from Cairn Gorm. It is the prominent in the view of the mountains from Speyside. The earliest time when the name appeared in the history is from a Colonel T. Thornton who visited the area in about 1786:
The use of the term "Cairngorms" as applied to the group must have become well established early in the nineteenth century, for we find it in Col Thornton's Sporting Tour (1804), where there is a reference to "Aurora peeping over the immense Cairngorms."— Alexander  (p21)
Cairn Gorm means Blue Cairn. Although the Gaelic gorm can also be used as an adjective and verb. It means green or greening, and is often seen in connection with growing grass.
View north-west from the summit of Beinn Bhreac (931 m).
- "Details for Cairngorms". SNH. 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2018-03-28. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "History Leading to the Cairngorms National Park". Cairngorms National Park Authority. Archived from the original on 2018-01-15. Retrieved 2018-01-15. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Tentative Lists". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
- "Cairngorms park boundary extended". BBC News. 2010-10-04. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
- "Cairngorms Landscapes". Cairngorms National Park. Retrieved 2018-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Allen & Davidson (2012), Prologue: The Mountains, p. 1/14.
- "Landscape Character Assessment - The Cairngorms Massif" (PDF). Cairngorms National Park Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-02-20. Retrieved 2018-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "What to look for in mountains and moorlands". Cairgorms Nature (Cairngorms National Park Authority ). Retrieved 2018-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "History". The Cairngorm Reindeer Herd. 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-19. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Cairngorms National Park". walkhighlands.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "What is left of the Old Caledonian Forest - and can it be saved?". The Scotsman. 2016-02-11. Retrieved 2018-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Watson (1992), p. 16.
- English, Charlie (7 February 2009). "Doctor Watson's feeling for snow". Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Ordnance Survey Landranger 1:50000, Sheet 36
- Watson, Adam (1975). The Cairngorms. Edinburgh: The Scottish Mountaineering Trust.
- Alexander, Henry (1928). The Cairngorms. Edinburgh: The Scottish Mountaineering Club.
- Dwelly, William Robertson, Michael Bauer, Edward. "Dwelly-d - Dwelly's Classic Scottish Gaelic Dictionary".
- Allen, John; Davidson, Robert (2012). Cairngorm John: A Life in Mountain Rescue (eBook). Dingwall: Sandstone Press. ISBN 978-1-908737-48-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) John Allen joined the Cairngorm Mountain Rescue Team after the time of the disaster and went on to become its leader.
- Baker, Patrick (2014). "The Lost Shelter". The Cairngorms: A Secret History. Birlinn. ISBN 9780857908094.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Watson, Adam (1992). The Cairngorms, Lochnagar and the Mounth (6th ed.). Scottish Mountaineering Trust. ISBN 0-907521-39-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Adam Watson is an academic and hill walker with very great experience of the Cairngorms.
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