Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

German mathematician

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (/əˈkbi/;[7] German: [jaˈkoːbi]; 10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician who contributed to elliptic functions, differential equations, determinants, and number theory. He was the first Jewish mathematician to be appointed professor at a German university.[8]

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
Carl Jacobi.jpg
Born(1804-12-10)10 December 1804
Died18 February 1851(1851-02-18) (aged 46)
Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia
Alma materUniversity of Berlin (Ph.D., 1825)
Known forJacobi's elliptic functions[1][2]
Jacobian matrix and determinant[3]
Jacobi ellipsoid
Jacobi polynomials[4][5]
Jacobi transform
Jacobi operator
Hamilton–Jacobi equation
Popularizing the character ∂[6]
Scientific career
InstitutionsKönigsberg University
ThesisDisquisitiones Analyticae de Fractionibus Simplicibus (1825)
Doctoral advisorEnno Dirksen
Doctoral studentsPaul Gordan
Otto Hesse
Friedrich Julius Richelot

Other websitesEdit

  • Jacobi's Vorlesungen über Dynamik
  • O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
  •   "Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jakob" . Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
  •   "Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jakob" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |HIDE_PARAMETER4=, |HIDE_PARAMETER2=, |HIDE_PARAMETER6=, |HIDE_PARAMETER5=, |HIDE_PARAMETER1=, and |HIDE_PARAMETER3= (help)
  •   "Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jakob" . The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |1= and |coauthors= (help)
  • Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi - Œuvres complètes Gallica-Math


  1. Weisstein, Eric W. "Jacobi Elliptic Functions." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.
  2. Jacobi elliptic functions. E.D. Solomentsev (originator), Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL:
  3. Weisstein, Eric W. "Jacobian." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.
  4. Weisstein, Eric W. "Jacobi Polynomial." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.
  5. Jacobi polynomials. P.K. Suetin (originator), Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL:
  6. Aldrich, John. "Earliest Uses of Symbols of Calculus". Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  7. "Jacobi, Carl Gustav Jacob". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  8. Aderet, Ofer (25 November 2011). "Setting the record straight about Jewish mathematicians in Nazi Germany". Haaretz.