chemical compound

Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound (or salts of quaternary ammonium cations; those cations are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+
, where R is an alkyl group or an aryl group).

Chemical structure of carnitine
Quaternary ammonium cation.

Carnitine is part of (the process of) metabolism in most mammals, plants, and some bacteria.[1][2][3][4]

During energy metabolism (or during the process of generating energy (ATP) from nutrients), Carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria so that it can be oxidized for energy production; Carnitine also also takes part in removing products of metabolism from cells.[3] Because of its key roles (or important roles), carnitine is concentrated in tissues - or much carnitine can be found in tissues - like skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle that metabolize fatty acids as an energy source.[3]

Doping in sportEdit

L-Carnitine is not on the doping list of World Anti-Doping Agency, or WADA, but people in sport got punishment in 2019, for [the way that they] used L-Carnitine.[5][6][7] (See doping in sport.)

Related pagesEdit


  1. "L-Carnitine". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 2019-12-01. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  2. Bremer J (October 1983). "Carnitine--metabolism and functions". Physiological Reviews. 63 (4): 1420–80. doi:10.1152/physrev.1983.63.4.1420. PMID 6361812.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Carnitine". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health. 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  4. "L-carnitine: Uses, benefits and dosage". 2020-01-20. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  5. Chavez, Chris (9 June 2017). "Jeffrey Stuart Brown accused of antidoping rules violations". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  6. Rebecca R. Ruiz (8 June 2017). "Doctor for Nike Oregon Project Runners Is Notified of Doping Allegations". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  7. "AAA Panel Imposes 4-Year Sanctions on Alberto Salazar and Dr. Jeffrey Brown for Multiple Anti-Doping Rule Violations". 30 September 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.