Cavalleria rusticana is an Italian opera in one act. The music was written by Pietro Mascagni. The story and words (libretto) were written by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci. The opera was based on a play by Giovanni Verga.
The opera was first performed in Rome on May 17, 1890. The work marked the start of the verismo style in Italian opera. It is often paired with Ruggero Leoncavallo's opera Pagliacci to make a full evening. Both operas are just a little over one hour each.