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Rome

capital and largest city of Italy

Rome is the capital city of Italy. It is also the capital and largest city in the region of Lazio, and the geographical region of Latium. It is on the Tiber River and has 2.8 million people. An estimate by the OECD put the number of people of the city area of Rome at 3.47 million.[3] When the Roman Empire was new, Rome was called the Eternal City because it was already very old.

Rome

Roma
Views of Rome, from top left clockwise: the Colosseum, St. Peter's Basilica, Castel Sant'Angelo, Ponte Sant'Angelo, Trevi Fountain and the Pantheon
Views of Rome, from top left clockwise: the Colosseum, St. Peter's Basilica, Castel Sant'Angelo, Ponte Sant'Angelo, Trevi Fountain and the Pantheon
Flag of Rome.svg
Flag
Insigne Romanum coronatum.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Urbs Aeterna (Latin)
The Eternal City

Caput Mundi (Latin)
The Capital of the world

Throne of St. Peter
The territory of the comune (Roma Capitale, in red) inside the Metropolitan City of Rome (Città Metropolitana di Roma, in yellow). The white area in the centre is Vatican City.
The territory of the comune (Roma Capitale, in red) inside the Metropolitan City of Rome (Città Metropolitana di Roma, in yellow). The white area in the centre is Vatican City.
Rome is located in Italy
Rome
Rome
Location within Italy
Rome is located in Europe
Rome
Rome
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.900°N 12.500°E / 41.900; 12.500Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.900°N 12.500°E / 41.900; 12.500
CountryItaly[a]
RegionLazio
Foundedc. 753 BC
Founded byKing Romulus
Government
 • TypeSpecial Comune ("Roma Capitale")
 • BodyRome City Council
 • MayorVirginia Raggi (M5S)
Population
 (30 April 2018)
 • Density2,236/km2 (5,790/sq mi)
 • Comune
2,872,800[1]
 • Metropolitan City
4,355,725[2]
WebsiteComune di Roma
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameHistoric Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura
Reference91
Inscription1980 (4th Session)
Via del Corso, the main street of the city

Rome is well known for being the home of the Catholic Church, including its leader, the Pope. He lives in the Vatican City, which is an enclave in the north-west part of Rome.

HistoryEdit

Nothing is known for sure about the founding of ancient Rome; it is prehistoric. The myth of Romulus and Remus is often told. They were supposedly raised by a she-wolf. Romulus killed Remus, and became the first king of Rome, for some time Romulus ruled alongside a Sabine King a neighbouring tribe. There is no historical evidence of this, but the story is popular. Numa Pompilius was the next king.

With the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom began the Republican era. The new Roman Republic fought and conquered the people around it. In 390 BC, the town was invaded by Gauls. Between the third and second century BC, Rome fought against the rival Carthage. The Roman army captured and destroyed Carthage.

Only with Julius Caesar in the first century BC, did the city began to grow significantly, especially toward the Campo Marzio, at the north of Capitoline Hill, and its domain was extended to Britannia. Caesar was never crowned emperor, a title which, however, fell to his adopted son Octavian who took the throne under the name of Augustus.

Augustus "found a city of bricks and left it of marble". With him Rome reached one million inhabitants and this was the first time in History that has happened in the world. Later emperors also added new monuments, temples and triumphal arches to ancient Rome.

With the decline of the Roman Empire, the city declined in importance and fell into ruin. Pope Gregory I created major reforms for the people. The city was ruled by the pope, and soon also became the capital of a state, the Papal States, which remained active until the nineteenth century. Popes, like the emperors, became richer over the centuries and the same happened with the counties ruled by them.

Rome experienced a second "rebirth" in importance during the Italian Renaissance. The city of monuments and churches was called the "capital of Christendom", as the home of the Basilica di San Giovanni Lateran, the most important church of the world. The masterpieces of the Renaissance geniuses, like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, embellished the city.

The power of the Pope lessened along with its state.

But with the Italian Risorgimento Rome experienced a third "rebirth". On 20 September 1870, Garibaldi's army, which had the task of uniting all of Italy under the crown of Savoy, entered the city through a breach opened in the walls at Porta Pia and, the same year, Rome became the capital of the new Italian state. In a few decades Rome grew to be one of the most important capitals of Europe and of the world: in 1936 it was the capital of the Italian Empire, even if for a few years because of the second world war.

Today, Rome is a major European political and cultural center, containing the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. There are also numerous museums, basilicas and palaces, such as the Colosseum, and, in the Vatican City, St. Peter's Basilica, a brilliant example of the architecture of the Renaissance which can be found all over Rome.

Actually Rome is one of the most visited city in the world tourism.

GeographyEdit

Rome stands on seven hills, with an area of 1,285.31 km2 (496.26 sq mi). The city is crossed by two rivers: the Tiber, which runs from east to west, and l'Aniene, which runs from north-east to north – within the city, it flows into the Tiber. Rome was built on Sun Hill, later named Palatine. It grew and is now built on seven principal hills:

ClimateEdit

Rome has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), with cool, humid winters and warm, dry summers. Its average annual temperature is above 20 °C (68 °F) during the day and 10 °C (50 °F) at night.

EducationEdit

The children in Rome have to go to school from the age of six until 16.[4] This takes them to the middle of high school (Scuola secondaria di secondo grado). Rome has the biggest university in Italy and it is named University of Rome. It was created in 1303. About 200,000 students go to study at this university.

TransportEdit

Rome has an airport, which is named Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO). There is a fast train that goes between the airport and the city center, the Leonardo Express, and many commuter railway lines to the nearby suburbs, along with long-distance trains to other cities in Italy. In the city itself, public transport consists of three metro lines (A, B, and C), six tram lines, and many bus routes.

BuildingsEdit

Related pagesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Excluding Vatican City

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. Bilancio demografico Anno 2014 (dati provvisori). Provincia: Roma Archived 5 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Demo.istat.it
  3. OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  4. "Law 27 December 2007, n.296" (in Italian). Italian Parliament. Retrieved 30 September 2012.

Other websitesEdit

 
A panoramic view of Rome from an aeroplane