physiological process of expelling a fetus from the pregnant human mother's uterus

Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section.[4] In 2015, there were about 135 million births globally.[5]

Other namesLabour and delivery, labor and delivery, partus, giving birth, parturition, birth, confinement[1][2]
Newborn baby and mother
Medical specialtyObstetrics, midwifery
ComplicationsObstructed labour, postpartum bleeding, eclampsia, postpartum infection, birth asphyxia, neonatal hypothermia[3]
TypesVaginal delivery, C-section[4]
PreventionBirth control, abortion
Frequency135 million (2015)[5]
Deaths500,000 maternal deaths a year

About 15 million were born before 37 weeks of gestation[6], called a premature birth, while between 3 and 12 percent were born after 42 weeks[7] as a postterm delivery.

Birth rate is important in determining the population growth rate.



  1. "confinement - Definition of confinement in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English. Archived from the original on 2018-11-23. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  2. "CONFINEMENT - meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary".
  3. Lunze K, Bloom DE, Jamison DT, Hamer DH (January 2013). "The global burden of neonatal hypothermia: systematic review of a major challenge for newborn survival". BMC Medicine. 11 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-24. PMC 3606398. PMID 23369256.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Martin E (2015). Concise Colour Medical l.p.Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-968799-2. Archived from the original on 2017-09-11.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "The World Factbook". July 11, 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  6. "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". WHO. November 2015. Archived from the original on 7 March 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  7. Buck GM, Platt RW (2011). Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-19-985774-6. Archived from the original on 2017-09-11.