group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes that are the closest living relatives of the animals

The choanoflagellates are a class or phylum of collared microscopic flagellate eukaryotes. Some species are single cells, some are multicellular. They do not have chloroplasts, and are heterotrophic. Some consider they form the simplest phylum of animals; others consider them to be protists.[6][7]

Temporal range: 900–0 Ma No fossils known, molecular clock evidence for origin 1050-800Ma[1]
Codosiga sp.
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Clade: Obazoa
(unranked): Opisthokonta
(unranked): Holozoa
(unranked): Filozoa
(unranked): Choanozoa
Class: Choanoflagellatea
Cavalier-Smith, 1998[2][3]
Orders & families
  • Craspedmonadina Stein, 1878
  • Choanoflagellata Kent, 1880[4]
  • Craspedomonadaceae Senn, 1900
  • Craspedophyceae Chadefaud, 1960
  • Craspédomonadophycidées Bourrelly, 1968
  • Craspedomonadophyceae Hibberd, 1976
  • Choanomonadea Krylov et al., 1980
  • Choanoflagellida Levine et al., 1980, Lee et al., 1985
  • Choanoflagellea Cavalier-Smith, 1997
  • Choanomonada Adl et al. 2005[5]
Sphaeroeca, a colony of choanoflagellates (about 230 individuals)

The Choanoflagellates have many similarities to metazoa, and are the sister group to Metazoa









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References change

  1. Wegener-Parfrey, Laura; Lahr, D. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Katz, L.A. (August 16, 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". PNAS. 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989.
  2. Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. Neomonada and the origin of animals and fungi. In: Coombs, G. H.; Vickerman, K.; Sleigh, M. A.; Warren, A. (ed.) Evolutionary relationships among protozoa. Kluwer, London, pp. 375–407.
  3. Leadbeater, Larry S. (2015). The choanoflagellates : evolution, biology, and ecology. University of Birmingham. ISBN 978-0-521-88444-0.
  4. Saville-Kent, W. (1880). A manual of Infusoria. London, vol. 1, p. 324, [1].
  5. Nitsche, F.; Carr, M.; Arndt, H.; Leadbeater, B. S. (2011). "Higher level taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics of the Choanoflagellatea". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 58 (5): 452–462. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2011.00572.x. PMID 21895836. S2CID 2076733.
  6. Leadbeater B.S.C. & Thomsen H. 2000. Order Choanoflagellida. In Lawrence (ed) An illustrated guide to the Protozoa 2nd ed, Society of Protozoologists.
  7. Carr M. et al. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of choanoflagellates, the sister group to Metazoa. PNAS 105: 16641–16646.