Colchester Town Centre
|Population||104,390 (2001 census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||CO1 – CO7|
|Ambulance||East of England|
Before Roman times, Colchester was Camulodunon. This is a Celtic name that came from Camulos. Camulos was the Celtic god of war. The Romans called Colchester Camulodunum (written "CAMVLODVNVM") and made it the capital of Roman Britain. Colchester was attacked and burnt by Boudicca in 61 AD. The Romans moved their capital of Britannia to Londinium (now London), but Camulodunum remained an important city until the fifth century, when the Saxons conquered the region.
The Roman town of Camulodunum, officially known as Colonia Victricensis, reached its peak in the Second and Third centuries AD. It may have reached a population of 30,000 in those centuries, but when the Romans withdrew from Britannia in 410 AD it probably had fewer than 5,000 inhabitants.
The church at the Benedictine abbey of Saint John the Baptist was destroyed in 1539. This action was part of the dissolution of the monasteries by King Henry VIII. Only a gate remains, that people still go to visit.
King Cunobelinus (or "Cunobelin") was from Colchester.
Until 2022, Colchester was officially a town, not a city. On 5 September, Queen Elizabeth II signed letters patent to grant it city status. This was planned as part of her Platinum Jubilee celebrations. However, she died three days later. On 29 September, these letters were publicly released.
Colchester is twinned with the following cities:
- Faulkner, Neil. (1994) Late Roman Colchester, In Oxford Journal of Archaeology 13(1)
- McCloy, A.; Midgley, A. (2008). Discovering Roman Britain. New Holland. p. 60. ISBN 9781847731289.
- B. D'Ambrosio. "Roman Camulodunum". University of Genova ( )
- "Queen Elizabeth II: Colchester city status ceremony plans postponed". BBC News. 9 September 2022.
- "Crown Office - The Gazette". 29 September 2022.
- B D'Ambrosio. "Roman Camulodunum". Universita' Statale di Genova (Genova University). Genova, 2007