Conservatism is a type of political belief that supports emphasis on traditions and relies on the individual to maintain society. The term was first used by François-René de Chateaubriand in 1818, during the Bourbon Restoration, which wanted to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. The term is associated with right-wing politics. It has been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that are regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on a given place and time, although most Conservatives oppose Modernism in some way and want to go back to old values. In Western culture for example, Conservatives try to maintain things like organized religion, property rights, parliamentary government and family values.
Conservatism tends to support the notion of faith, particularly in Abrahamic traditions in countries where those are the dominant religions. In England, the publication of Edmund Burke’s book Reflections on the revolution in France suggested people should be satisfied and advocated a caring government. The two ideas go together.
Some conservatives seek to keep things as they are, while others want a return to the way things were at an earlier time. This is often called reactionary conservatism. A conservative party in England formed which wanted better co-operation between rich and poor, democracy, and some aspects of a welfare state. This was also favoured by conservatives in France and other parts of Europe.
- Gradualism: The process of change in a slow, gradual way.
- Liberal conservatism: Conservatism with the classical liberal view that the government should not control the economy.
- National conservatism: Conservatism that is focused more on culture and race without being a Nationalist or Far-right.
- Religious conservatism: Conservatism that applies a religion to politics.
- Social conservatism: Conservatism that focuses on social issues and traditions.
Conservatism in different countriesEdit
In the United States, conservatives worry about centralism, do not trust the welfare state, and consider business people trustworthy on wages and prices. The Republican Party is a Conservative political party from the United States.
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- Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard; Minogue, Kenneth; Viereck, Peter (26 July 1999). "Conservatism | History, Intellectual Foundations, & Examples". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- Muller, Jerry Z. (4 May 1997). Conservatism : an anthology of social and political thought from David Hume to the present. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-691-03711-0. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
Terms related to 'conservative' first found their way into political discourse in the title of the French weekly journal, Le Conservateur, founded in 1818 by François-René de Chateaubriand with the aid of Louis de Bonald.
- McLean, Iain; McMillan, Alistair (2009). "Conservatism". Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. "Sometimes [conservatism] has been outright opposition, based on an existing model of society that is considered right for all time. It can take a 'reactionary' form, harking back to, and attempting to reconstruct, forms of society which existed in an earlier period". ISBN 978-0-19-920516-5.
- "Conservatism (political philosophy)". Britannica.com. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "BBC – History – Edmund Burke (1729–1797)". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC (UK). 2014. Archived from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
- McLean, Iain; McMillan, Alistair (18 January 2010). The concise Oxford dictionary of politics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920516-5. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
Sometimes it (conservatism) has been outright opposition, based on an existing model of society that is considered right for all time. It can take a 'reactionary' form, harking back to, and attempting to reconstruct, forms of society which existed in an earlier period(subscription required)