area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents

An economy is a system of making and trading things of value. It is usually divided into goods (materials and objects) and services (things people do). An economy assumes that there is a medium of exchange, which, in the modern world, is called 'finance'. This makes trade possible. The alternative – systems of barter – exist only on a very small scale.

To better understand how the economy works, it can be discussed in three sections:

The term 'real economy' is sometimes used to mean the part of the economy concerned with goods and services. This is contrasted with the 'paper economy', the financial side of the economy, which buys and sells on the financial markets.[1][2][3][4]

The word 'economy' comes from the Greek word 'οἰκονόμος'. This means 'person who manages the house'.



  1. Meanwhile, in the real economy, Wall Street Journal, July 23, 2009
  2. Bank regulation should serve real economy, Wall Street Journal, October 24, 2011
  3. "Real economy" Archived 2018-02-09 at the Wayback Machine definition in the Financial Times Lexicon
  4. "Real economy" definition in the Economic Glossary