An electric field is a vector field that shows the direction that a positively charged particle will move when placed in the field. Electric fields are produced around objects that have electrical charge, or by a magnetic field that changes with time. Electric field lines are used to represent the influence of electric field.  The idea of an electric field was first made by Michael Faraday.
Electric fields are caused by electric charges, described by Gauss's law, or varying magnetic fields, described by Faraday's law of induction. The equations of both fields are coupled and together form Maxwell's equations that describe both fields as a function of charges and currents.
- Richard Feynman (1970). The Feynman Lectures on Physics Vol II. Addison Wesley Longman. ISBN 978-0-201-02115-8.
- "Michael Faraday". Retrieved 2015-06-30.
- Purcell, p 25: "Gauss's Law: the flux of the electric field E through any closed surface... equals 1/e times the total charge enclosed by the surface."
- Purcell, p 356: "Faraday's Law of Induction."
- Purcell, Edward & Morin, David 2013. Electricity and magnetism. 3rd ed, Cambridge University Press. New York. ISBN 978-1-107-01402-2