Esophageal cancer is a type of cancer in the esophagus. There are many types, mostly squamous cell cancer (about 90–95% of all esophageal cancer worldwide) and adenocarcinoma (about 50–80% of all esophageal cancer in the United States).
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Squamous cell cancer starts from the cells that line the upper part of the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma starts from glandular cells that are present at the lining of the esophagus and stomach.