An essay is a written text. It is usually about the personal point of view of the author who wrote it. The definition of an essay is vague. Articles and short stories can be quite similar. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been called essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). People that write essays are called essayists.
Essays can have all sorts of purposes. For example, an essay can be very argumentative, it can talk about points for and against the essay question to give a balanced argument or opinion. Essay must be essential and give some new points about topics. Its must be useful to readers.
- argument led approach. An argumentative essay is a critical piece of writing, aimed at presenting objective view of a subject matter. It is narrowed down to a single topic. 
- thesis led approach. A thesis statement based essay follows a thesis which supports a particular case.
- cause and effect,
- problem and solution,
- comparison and contrast,
- argument and evidence,
- procedural sequence,
- chronological ordering.
- Chapter 6: Comparison and Contrast in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005.
- Jane Gallop (12 November 2012). Polemic: Critical Or Uncritical. Routledge. pp. 15+. ISBN 978-1-135-87348-6.
- "English Composition 1: Thesis". papyr.com.
- Chapter 2: Description in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005.