Gallipoli Campaign

1916 military campaign during World War I

The Gallipoli Campaign [1] was an Allied attack on the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I. The campaign took place between April 25, 1915, and January 9, 1916. The Allied forces of the British Empire and of French fought the Ottoman Empire.

Gallipoli Campaign
Part of the Middle Eastern Theatre (First World War)

Gallipoli Campaign, April 1915
Date25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916
Gallipoli peninsula, Ottoman Empire
Result Decisive Ottoman victory

The purpose of the attack was to allow ships to bring supplies via the Black Sea to help Russia break the stalemate on the Eastern Front.

HMS Irresistible sinking because of Ottoman Artillery on the coast on 18 March 1915

The campaign started with a naval attack along the Dardanelles. Naval mines sank or damaged several ships, and the Ottomans fought back and stopped the Allies from entering the Sea of Marmara. It was decided that if the Russians were to receive any British help, a land invasion was necessary.

On April 25, 1915, Allied forces landed at various locations along the Gallipoli Peninsula. Many British soldiers landed in the wrong places, which caused heavy casualties. The British landed at Cape Helles and the ANZACs landed at a place that was later known as Anzac Cove. However, the Allies did not push on. Instead, they were told to dig trenches and wait for an Ottoman attack. There was trench warfare until the evacuation of all Allied troops was finally ordered. The campaign is widely viewed as an Allied failure.

The British historian A.J.P. Taylor wrote of the Gallipoli campaign: "The Gallipoli expedition was a terrible example of an ingenious strategical idea carried through after inadequate preparation and with inadequate drive."[2]

Mustafa Kemal led the Ottoman defenders in what was the only important victory in the war and so he became a hero. Years after the war ended, he became the first President of Turkey. He paid tribute to the ANZAC soldiers who had died there.


  1. or the Dardanelles Campaign and the Battle of Gallipoli
  2. Taylor, A.J.P. (1963). The First World War: an illustrated history. Penguin. p. 104.