common type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock with grained texture

Granite is a kind of igneous rock, found on Earth but nowhere else in the Solar System.[1][2] It is formed from hot, molten magma. Its colour can be dark or light grey, brown, or even pink, according to the proportions of its minerals. It is called a plutonic rock because it forms under ground.

Most buildings in Aberdeen are made of granite
Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) The different colours are caused by different proportions of the minerals

The magma is forced between other layers of rock by the pressure under the Earth's surface. The magma cools and turns slowly into solid stone. Granite has many different types of minerals in it. These include quartz, feldspar, hornblende, and sometimes mica. As the magma cools, these minerals form crystals. The crystals can be seen easily if the granite is cut and polished.

Granite is a common stone on Earth, and makes up a big part of the crust (the Earth's outer layer). It is usually found in the continental plates of the Earth's crust. Although it forms under the surface of the Earth, there are many places where it has been forced upwards by tectonic movement. When plates in the Earth's crust move together, they get bent and pushed upwards. When this happens, granite mountains can be formed.

Origin change

Granite forms from silica-rich (felsic) magmas. It is the most abundant basement rock. It lies under the thin sedimentary rocks which cover the continents

Chemical composition change

A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses:[3]

SiO2 72.04% (silica) 72.04
Al2O3 14.42% (alumina) 14.42
K2O 4.12% 4.12
Na2O 3.69% 3.69
CaO 1.82% 1.82
FeO 1.68% 1.68
Fe2O3 1.22% 1.22
MgO 0.71% 0.71
TiO2 0.30% 0.3
P2O5 0.12% 0.12
MnO 0.05% 0.05

Uses change

Granite is dense, and can be cut, carved and shaped. It is resistant to water and pollution, and has a range of different colours.[4]

Kitchen benches are often made of polished granite. Granite is found in many countries of the world. Some countries have beautifully patterned granite which is quarried (cut in open mines) and sold for building material.

Gallery change

References change

  1. Andrea Thompson 2008. The exciting evolution of rocks. LiveScience
  2. Rosing, Minik T. 2008. On the evolution of minerals. Nature 456 p457.
  3. Blatt, Harvey and Tracy, Robert J. 1997. Petrology. 2nd ed, New York: Freeman, p66. ISBN 0-7167-2438-3
  4. Learn Science intermediate grades 5 to 6, by Mike Evans and Linda Ellis