Great Turkish War
The Great Turkish War was fought between 1683 and 1699 by Ottoman Empire and the winning Holy League (the Habsburg Monarchy, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia). Intensive fighting began in 1683 after the Ottomans failed to take the city of Vienna during the siege and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The defeated Ottoman Empire lost for the first time large amounts of territory: in Hungary and the Poland–Lithuania, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in an alliance with Western Europe.