Vienna (// (listen); German: Wien [viːn] (listen); Central Austro-Bavarian: Wean [veɐ̯n]; Viennese German and Austrian German: Wian [vɪa:n]) is the capital and largest city of Austria. It is also one of Austria's nine states.
|• Mayor and Governor||Michael Häupl (SPÖ)|
|• Capital city||414.65 km2 (160.10 sq mi)|
|• Land||395.26 km2 (152.61 sq mi)|
|• Water||19.39 km2 (7.49 sq mi)|
|Elevation||151 (Lobau) – 542 (Hermannskogel) m (495–1,778 ft)|
(1. January 2017)
|• Capital city||1,867,960|
|• Rank||1st in Austria (7th in EU)|
|• Density||4,326.1/km2 (11,205/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicity||61.2% Austrian|
|Statistik Austria, VCÖ – Mobilität mit Zukunft|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
1010–1423, 1600, 1601, 1810, 1901
|- Nominal GDP (2015)||€86.5 billion/ US$96 billion|
|- GDP per capita (2015)||€47,700/ US$52,500|
|Official name||Historic Centre of Vienna|
|Criteria||ii, iv, vi|
|Designated||2001 (25th session)|
|UNESCO Region||Europe and North America|
In regard to the etymology of the city's name, scholars are not in agreement. Some claim that the name comes from vedunia, meaning "forest stream"; From that word, came the Old High German word uuenia (wenia in modern writing), and the New High German word wien and its dialectal variant wean.
The history of the city goes back to the Roman Empire. The Romans started a military camp called Vindobona. The camp was in today's first district on the Danube river. The name came from the Celts, so there was probably a Celtic settlement before the Roman invasion. The Romans stayed until the 5th century. In medieval times, the settlement was still in use. The present name was mentioned in 881 in the Salzburger Annalen, where a battle ad weniam is mentioned.
In 976 the House of Babenberg became rulers of the area. They made Vienna their capital in 1155. Vienna was already an important city. In 1156, Austria became a Duchy, and Vienna was where the Duke who ruled the Duchy lived. In 1221, Vienna got municipal rights. It Is the second oldest city in Austria (Enns, in Upper Austria, is the oldest).
In 1278, the Duchy came to the Habsburg family. Rudolf IV started the university in 1365 and while he was duke the nave of the Gothic St. Stephan's Cathedral was built. Quarrels within the Hapsburg family caused an economic decline in Vienna. In 1438, Vienna became the residence of the Holy Roman Emperor.
During the time of the reformation Vienna was a Protestant city, but in the times of the Counter Reformation, Austria and Vienna were mostly Roman Catholic.
In 1529, Vienna was first besieged by the army of the Ottoman Empire, which had a border only 150 km east of Vienna. This hurt Vienna economically, but led to people fortifying the city (making it stronger). After a second siege, the Ottoman Empire could not take Vienna, and the city started getting larger.
During the baroque era, Vienna was rebuilt. Many residences for the nobility were built. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was an important architect in Vienna.
After the revolution in 1848 Franz Joseph I. became emperor of the Austrian Empire, which was founded in 1806 after the liquidation of the Holy Roman Empire. He ruled till 1916. Vienna became a center of arts, culture and architecture. The city grew because the suburbs became part of the city. After 1858 the walls of the city were destroyed and the Ringstraße replaced them. Along that street houses of the rich citizens were built, as were public buildings like the city hall and the Burg theatre. The industrialisation started at the beginning of the century and made more people live there. In 1870, Vienna had one million people, and in 1910, two million people. With the creation of a large working class and poverty in Vienna the Labour Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei) became stronger.
Karl Lueger was the most important mayor in the time of Emperor Franz Josef. During his time important community plans were realized that made Vienna a modern city. However, Lueger was a radical anti-Semite. He was admired by the young Adolf Hitler, who spent some years before the First World War in Vienna. At this time, Vienna was an important place for the arts. Composers like Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Ernst Krenek were important for the development of modern music. Also the psychoanalysis was founded in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. Also the so-called Jugendstil in arts was part of Vienna's modern arts scene. Founding fathers of modern architecture lived and worked also in Vienna at this time (Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos)
After the end of the First World War the Austrian-Hungary Empire was dissolved and Vienna became capital of the Republic of Austria. In 1938, Austria was occupied by Germany. In Vienna the suffering of the Jewish inhabitants began. A lot of their properties was given to Austrians (Arisierung).
After the Second World War, which destroyed 20% of Vienna's buildings, Vienna was divided into four parts. The city was controlled by the allies like the other parts of Austria. In 1955 the state treaty between the allies and Austria was signed in Vienna's Belvedere. After that Vienna became an important city for international organisations. The first was 1957 the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO) and 1965 the OPEC followed. 1980 the Vienna International Center was opened and Vienna is now the third UN-city together with New York and Geneva.
Remains of the heating system in a Roman house in Vienna
St. Stephens cathedral
Vienna in the baroque era
Ringstraße and parliament around 1900
Karl-Marx-Hof is one of the best-known Gemeindebauten (municipal tenement complexes) in Vienna
There are 23 districts in Vienna. They are:
Vienna has many things worth seeing. Here are a few of them.
- St. Stephen's cathedral and St. Stephen's Square:
- Today St. Stephen's square with the cathedral is the very center of Vienna. The Graben and the Kärntner Straße which lead away from the square are shopping streets with a lot of different shops. Opposite the cathedral you can find the Haas-House, a very modern building by the architect Hans Hollein.
- The Ringstraße runs around the first district and was built in the second half of the 19th century. The street follows the old city walls which were destroyed to create it. Along the street you can find different important buildings like the Staatsoper (opera house), the parliament, the Burgtheater, the two museums of natural history and arts. Also, the Wiener Postsparkasse which is an important building by the architect Otto Wagner is along the street.
- From the 13th century to 1918 this was the residence of the Habsburg rulers. Today it is the residence of the President of the Republic of Austria and you can also visit different museums like the Schatzkammer where you can see the different crowns of the Habsburg family and the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. The National Library is also the Hofburg.
- Schönbrunn Palace:
- Schloss Belvedere:
There are many old buildings, churches and museums in the city centre. Classical music and opera are popular in Vienna. The composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Brahms all worked in Vienna. Vivaldi also died in Vienna. The city has two world-famous orchestras: the Vienna Philharmonic and the Vienna Symphony.
- STATISTIK AUSTRIA. "Bevölkerung zu Jahres-/Quartalsanfang". statistik.at. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Vienna in figures 2012, Vienna City Administration Municipal Department 23 Economic Affairs, Labour and Statistics Responsible for the contents: Gustav Lebhart, page 6" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- "Statistik Austria – Bevölkerung zu Quartalsbeginn seit 2002 nach Bundesland". Statistik.at. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "VCÖ.at: VCÖ fordert Nahverkehrsoffensive gegen Verkehrskollaps in den Städten". vcoe.at. 2008. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- XE.com average EUR/ USD ex. rate in 2015
- Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Historic Centre of Vienna inscribed on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
- Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0
- Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2
- "Vindobona (Vienna)". livius.org. 2011. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
Other websites change
- Official Website of the city of Vienna (English)
- WorldFlicks in Vienna: Photos and interesting places on Google Maps Archived 2008-02-21 at the Wayback Machine