Salzburg (Austrian German: [ˈsaltsbʊɐ̯k]; German: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k] (listen);[note 1] literally "Salt Fortress"; Austro-Bavarian: Soizbuag) is the capital and also a district of the Austrian state of Salzburg or Salzburgerland. The population is about 150,000 and is the 4th largest city of Austria.
From top, left to right: view of Hohensalzburg Fortress, University of Salzburg in front of the Salzach, with Nonnberg Abbey in the background, Salzburg Cathedral, Roittner-Durchhaus, Getreidegasse
|Coordinates: 47°48′0″N 13°02′0″E / 47.80000°N 13.03333°ECoordinates: 47°48′0″N 13°02′0″E / 47.80000°N 13.03333°E|
|• Mayor||Harald Preuner (ÖVP)|
|• Total||65.65 km2 (25.35 sq mi)|
|Elevation||424 m (1,391 ft)|
(1 October 2020)
|• Density||2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv, vi|
|Inscription||1996 (20th Session)|
|Buffer zone||467 ha|
Its most famous citizen was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Another famous inhabitant of Salzburg was the physicist Christian Doppler who found the Doppler effect which was named after him.
The Salzach river crosses the city. The old town was adopted by the UNESCO as World Heritage Site in 1996. Known is Salzburg also for being one of the settings for the movie "The Sound of Music" which based on the musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein.
People lived in Salzburg since the New Stone Age till present. The oldest finding in the city area is dated around 4500 B.C. From 15 B.C. onwards after the Roman occupation the city was called Iuvavum. The roman city was in today's old town around the Waagplatz. The city became an important place from the east to the province of Germania. The Romans left on the beginning of the barbarian migration around 500. Up to 696 only few can be said about the history. 696 the city was given to bishop Rupert by Duke Theodo II. of Bavaria.
Rupert was ordered by the Duke to bring Christianity to the east and southeast of his country. Rupert founded the monastery St. Peter and for women the monastery Nonnberg. 739 Salzburg became the seat of a bishop and 774 the first cathedral was built. 998 Salzburg became archbishopric ruling the whole Bavarian area.
In the Middle Ages Salzburg became wealthy by the trade with salt from the nearby Dürnberg in Hallein. Till the 14th century Salzburg became independent from Bavaria and was a state within the Holy Roman Empire. The citizens of Salzburg were under the command of the archbishop unlike other cities in the empire. In the baroque era the look of today's city was shaped. The cathedral was rebuilt in the baroque style. Most of the architects came from Italy. 1622 a university was founded. Due to the fact that it was a catholic state Protestants had a severe standing in Salzburg. Yet 1731 Protestants, who came not back to the catholic belief had do leave Salzburg within eight days.
In the early 19th century Napoleon Bonaparte promoted the Duchy of Salzburg, than later was a part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Then, Salzburg was annexed by Austria, returned to Bavarian and divided between Bavaria and Austria. 1918 Salzburg became a federal state of the new Republic of Austria.
In 1938, Germany annexed Austria and Salzburg was a part of Germany. In 1945, when Austria was independent from Germany. It became a federal state again.
Urban districts (Stadtteile):
Mayors of the city since it became part of AustriaEdit
1816 - 1875Edit
- Magistrat without mayor 1816 bis 1818
- Anton von Heffter 1818 - 1831
- Alois Lergetporer 1831 - 1847
- Mathias Gschnitzer 1847 - 1850
- Franz Xaver Späth 1850 - 1853
- Alois Spängler 1854 - 1861
- Heinrich Ritter von Mertens 1861 - 1872
- Ignaz Harrer 1872 - 1875
1875 - 1919Edit
- Rudolf Biebl 1875 - 1885
- Leopold Scheibl 1885 - 1888
- Albert Schumacher 1888 - 1890
- Franz von Hueber 1890 - 1894
- Gustav Zeller 1894 - 1898
- Eligius Scheibl 1898 - 1900
- Franz Berger 1900 - 1912
- Max Ott 1912 - 1919
1919 bis 1945Edit
- Josef Preis 1919 - 1927
- Max Ott 1927 - 1935
- Richard Hildmann 1935 - 1938
- Anton Giger, 1938 - 1945 - „Oberbürgermeister der Gauhauptstadt Salzburg“ during Nazi occupation
1945 bis 1999Edit
- Richard Hildmann 1945 - 1946
- Anton Neumayr 1946 - 1951
- Stanislaus Pacher 1952 - 1957
- Alfred Bäck 1957 - 1970
- Heinrich Salfenauer 1970 - 1980
- Josef Reschen 1980 - 1990
- Harald Lettner 1990 - 1992
- Josef Dechant 1992 - 1999
Mayor elected directly by the people from 1999 onwardsEdit
- Heinz Schaden since 1999
Salzburg is a World Heritage. There are some places of interest like:
Other places of interestEdit
- Mirabell Palace with Mirabell Garden
- Augustiner Bräustübl Mülln (beer garden of the Augustiner brewery)
- Hellbrunn palace
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, composer
- Gerhard Amanshauser, writer
- Gerd Bacher, journalist
- Christian Doppler, mathematician and physicist
- Herbert von Karajan, conductor
- Angelika Kirchschlager, singer
- Genia Kühmeier, singer
- Hans Makart, painter
- Georg Trakl, lyric poet
- Irma von Troll-Borostyáni, early feminist
-  Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine - Article by Brian Robins: "Mozart's Salzburg".
- Salzburg City Tourist Office – Official tourist board website.
- Visit Salzburg - Local information
- Salzburger Nachrichten Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine – Tourism site maintained by the local newspaper, Salzburger Nachrichten.
- Salzburg Tourism Archived 2009-12-13 at the Wayback Machine Tourist attractions in Salzburg, with descriptions and maps (in English)
- Pictureserver Archived 2007-01-21 at the Wayback Machine Views of Salzburg
- Georgia Salzburger Society – The website of the Georgia Salzburger Society, descendents of the refugees who settled in Georgia after their expulsion from Salzburg in 1731.
- LonelyPlanet Salzburg
- Main touristic attractions in Salzburg Archived 2009-01-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Tourism related information about main sights and sights off the beaten track Archived 2008-06-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Tourism related information
City Tours and Tour operators in SalzburgEdit
- Salzburg Tours, Sound of Music Tours, Hallstatt, Bavarian Mountains, etc. - Bob's Special Tours
- Panorama Tours - Panorama Tours
- Hop on hop off tours in the city - Salzburg Sightseeing Tours
- City Guides of Salzburg - Salzburg Guides
- ↑ English: /ˈsɔːltsbɜːrɡ/, also UK: /ˈsæltsbɜːrɡ/, US: /ˈsɔːlzbɜːrɡ, ˈsɑːlz-, ˈsælz-, ˈzɑːltsbʊərk/.
- ↑ "Dauersiedlungsraum der Gemeinden Politischen Bezirke und Bundesländer - Gebietsstand 1.1.2018". Statistics Austria. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ↑ "Salzburg in Zahlen". Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- ↑ "Salzburg". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- ↑ "Salzburg". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- ↑ "Salzburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- ↑ "Salzburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2019.