The Great Walls are the largest known structures in the universe. They are based on data set mapping of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The mapping found an unusually high concentration of similarly distanced GRBs in certain areas.
Structures larger than 1,200,000,000 light years are incompatible with the cosmological principle according to all estimates.
(in light years)
|Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall (2014)||10,000,000,000||Discovered through gamma-ray burst mapping, and is the first structure to exceed 10 billion light years.|
|Giant GRB Ring (2015)||5,600,000,000||Discovered through gamma-ray burst mapping. Largest known regular formation in the observable Universe.|
|Huge-LQG (2012-2013)||4,000,000,000||Decoupling of 73 quasars. Largest known large quasar group and the first structure found to exceed 3 billion light years.|
|U1.11 LQG (2011)||2,500,000,000||Involves 38 quasars. Adjacent to the Clowes-Campusano LQG.|
|Clowes-Campusano LQG (1991)||2,000,000,000||Grouping of 34 quasars. Discovered by Roger Clowes and Luis Campusano.|
|Sloan Great Wall (2003)||1,370,000,000||Discovered through the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.|
|Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex (1987)||1,000,000,000||Contains the Milky Way, and is the first galaxy filament to be discovered. (The first LQG was found earlier in 1982.) A new report in 2014 confirms the Milky Way as a member of Laniakea Supercluster.|
|CfA2 Great Wall (1989)||750,000,000||Also known as the Coma Wall|
|Laniakea Supercluster (2014)||520,000,000||Galaxy supercluster in which the Earth is located|
|Horologium Supercluster (2005)||550,000,000||Also known as Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster.|
- Horvath, Istvan; Hakkila, Jon; Bagoly, Zsolt (2014). "Possible structure in the GRB sky distribution at redshift two". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 561: id.L12. arXiv:1401.0533. Bibcode:2014A&A...561L..12H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201323020. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2013). "The largest structure of the Universe, defined by Gamma-Ray bursts". 7th Huntsville Gamma-Ray Burst Symposium, GRB 2013: paper 33 in eConf Proceedings C1304143. 1311: 1104. arXiv:1311.1104. Bibcode:2013arXiv1311.1104H.
- Horvath, Istvan; Bagoly, Zsolt; Hakkila, Jon; Tóth, L. Viktor. "Anomalies in the GRB spatial distribution" (PDF). Proceedings of Science.
- Klotz, Irene (2013). "Universe's largest structure is a cosmic conundrum". discovery. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Balazs L.G.; et al. (2015). "A giant ring-like structure at 0.78 < z < 0.86 displayed by GRBs". Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society. 452 (3): 2236. arXiv:1507.00675. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.452.2236B. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1421. Retrieved 5 August 2015. Explicit use of et al. in:
- Aron, Jacob. "Largest structure challenges Einstein's smooth cosmos". New Scientist. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Astronomers discover the largest structure in the universe". Royal astronomical society. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- Clowes, Roger; et al. (2013). "A structure in the early Universe at z ∼ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology". Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society. 1211 (4): 6256. arXiv:1211.6256. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.429.2910C. doi:10.1093/mnras/sts497. Retrieved 14 January 2013. Explicit use of et al. in: