last major division of classical Japanese history (794 to 1185), named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto
In this period Kyoto was the center of Japanese culture. It was also in this period that the first known novel was published. Its author was a woman. Poetry was very popular in Heian-kyo at the time.
- 794: Emperor Kammu moves the capital to Heian-kyō.
- 804: Saichō (also known as Dengyo Daishi) establishes the Tendai Buddhist sect in Japan.
- 806: Kūkai (also known as Kōbō-Daishi) establishes the Shingon Bhuddist sect in Japan
- 858: Reign of Emperor Seiwa begins; the power of the Fujiwara clan expands
- 895: Sugawara Michizane persuades Emperor Uda to suspend Imperial embassies to China.
- 1053: Byōdō-in temple near Kyōto is completed
- 1087: Emperor Shirakawa abdicates and becomes a Buddhist monk, the beginning of the Insei system of Imperial government
- 1185: Death of Emperor Antoku; Taira clan is defeated in the Gempei War
- Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,"Nara and Heian Periods"; retrieved 2011-10-20.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2002). "Heian-jidai" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 302.
- Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 277-279.
- History of Tendai Buddhism; retrieved 2011-10-20.
- Koyosan Shingon Buddhism, Kobo Daishi; retrieved 2011-10-20.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 115-121; Brown, pp. 286-288; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 166-17.
- Kitagawa, Hiroshi et al. (1975). The Tale of the Heike, p. 222.
- Asian Historical Architecture, Byōdō-in; retrieved 2011-10-20.
- Titsingh, p. 171; Brown, p. 316; Varley, p. 202.
- Kitagawa, p. 787; Titsingh, pp. 211-212.