a parasite whose host is also a parasite
(Redirected from Hyperparasitoid)

A hyperparasite is a parasite (or parasitoid) which is parasitic on another parasite. Usually, this means it is parasitic on the larval stage of the victim species.

A hyperparasitoid chalcid wasp on the cocoons of its host, a braconid wasp. The victim is itself a parasitoid of Lepidoptera
A hyperparasitic microsporidian, the fungus Nosema podocotyloidis, is a parasite of the trematode Podocotyloides magnatestis. The trematode is itself a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum.[1]

Typical examples are members of the Apocrita, and some species in two other insect orders, the Diptera (true flies) and Coleoptera (beetles). Seventeen families in the Hymenoptera and a few species of Diptera and Coleoptera are hyperparasitic.[2]

Primary parasitism in the Hymenoptera evolved in the Jurassic period about 135 million years ago.[2]

In literature change

Jonathan Swift refers to hyperparasitism in these lines from his poem
"On Poetry: A Rhapsody":[3]

So nat'ralists observe, a flea
Hath smaller fleas that on him prey;
And these have smaller fleas to bite 'em.
And so proceeds ad infinitum.

Number of levels change

Three levels of parasitism have been seen in fungi (a fungus on a fungus on a fungus on a tree).[4]

References change

  1. Toguebaye, Bhen Sikina; Quilichini, Yann; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Marchand, Bernard (2014). "Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei)". Parasite. 21: 44. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014044. PMC 4150386. PMID 25174849.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Sullivan, Daniel J. (2009). "Hyperparasitism". Encyclopedia of Insects. pp. 486–488. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374144-8.00138-7. ISBN 9780123741448.
  3. Swift, Jonathan (1733). On Poetry: A Rapsody. And sold by J. Huggonson, next to Kent's Coffee-house, near Serjeant's-inn, in Chancery-lane; [and] at the bookseller's and pamphletshops. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  4. "Fungi Cubed" (PDF).