An idiom is a common phrase which means something different from its literal meaning but can be understood because of their popular use.
Idioms are difficult for someone not good at speaking the language. Some idioms are only used by some groups of people or at certain times. The idiom shape up or ship out, which is like saying improve your behavior or leave if you don't, might be said by an employer or supervisor to an employee, but not to other people.
Idioms are not the same thing as slang. Idioms are made of normal words that have a special meaning known to almost everyone. Slang is usually special words, or special meanings of normal words that are known only to a particular group of people.
To learn a language a person needs to learn the words in that language, and how and when to use them. But people also need to learn idioms separately because certain words together or at certain times can have different meanings. In order to understand an idiom, one sometimes needs to know the culture from which the idiom comes.
To know the history of an idiom can be useful and interesting. For example, most native British English speakers know that "No room to swing a cat" means "there was not much space" and can use the idiom properly. However, few know this is because 200 years ago sailors were punished by being whipped with a "cat o' nine tails". A big space was cleared on the ship so that the person doing the whipping had room to swing the cat.
An idiom is a phrase whose meaning cannot be understood from the dictionary definitions of each word taken separately. The linguist's term for the real meaning of an idiom is the subtext.
Some common idiomsEdit
- Break a leg
- A way to wish someone good luck.
- To live it up
- To enjoy life, to live widely
- To kick the bucket
- To die.
- Shape up or ship out
- Used to tell someone that they should leave if they don't improve their behavior or performance
- Learn the ropes
- Mad as a hatter
- Mentally unstable, especially as the result of poisoning.
- To shed crocodile tears
- To cry about something but without actually caring.
- Wild goose chase
- A useless journey or pursuit.
- Nothing burger
- An idea or promise without substance
- There's no room to swing a cat
- There is not a lot of space.
- To pay through the nose
- To pay a lot of money, more than is normal.
- Cost an arm and a leg
- Be extremely expensive.
- To bark up the wrong tree
- To choose the wrong course of action.
- To spill the beans
- To tell a secret.
- It's raining cats and dogs
- It's raining heavily.
- To get into hot water
- To get into trouble.
- Skate on thin ice
- To disregard caution.
- Frightened or cowardly
- To chicken out
- Not doing a thing, because of fear.
- Top dog
- To smell a rat
- To think that something is wrong.
- To give up
- To quit.
- To give up on
- To stop believing in something or someone.
- I could eat a horse
- I am very hungry.
- To be on top of the world
- To be really happy.
- Once in a blue moon
- Wouldn't touch with a ten-foot pole! (Or barge pole in British English
- Not wanting anything to do with something or someone.
- Avoid like the plague
- Avoid at any cost.
- Miss the boat
- Be too late for a chance or opportunity.
- Child's play
- Easy to do.
- Something easy to accomplish.
- Chinese puzzle
- Extremely difficult task.
- Castle in the clouds or pie in the sky
- An impossible or improbable dream, project, etc.
- Hit the sack
- To go to bed
- Get\give the sack
- Dismiss or be dismissed from one's employment.
- The whole nine yards
- Bells and whistles
- All the unnecessary luxuries, features, etc
- Mad as a hater
- Insane, as from poisoning.
- Turn a blind eye \ deaf ear
- To ignore.
- Cry wolf
- Report a false emergency.
- One's cup of tea
- What someone prefers.
- Not for all the tea in China
Less common idioms include
- Safe as houses
- Very safe and secure.
Idioms which have unclear meaningEdit
Articles by Oxfam and the BBC have said that many idioms in English are unclear, or ambiguous. Many are understood differently in different countries. Many of the examples are taken from face-to-face talk, but may also apply in written reports.
- Satisfactory (in a report, or in an assessment) might mean not satisfactory.
- I hear what you say. Might mean I'm listening, but more likely I totally disagree.
- With the greatest respect. May mean You are quite wrong. 68% of British thought it meant "I think you are an idiot", whereas 49% of Americans thought it meant "I am listening to you".
- I'll bear it in mind. In a survey 55% of British thought it meant I've forgotten it already. 43% of Americans thought it meant I will probably do it.
Vocables are sounds that are not proper words, but mean something, and are often ambiguous. One is a long drawn-out sound hmmmmmm.
- Oxfam 2011. What Brits say v. what they mean.  Archived 2019-03-30 at the Wayback Machine
- BBC News 2019. YouGov survey: British sarcasm 'lost on Americans'
- YouGov 2019. British subtext: half of Americans wouldn't be able to tell that a Briton is calling them an idiot. 2019.