John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough KG PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an important English soldier and statesman. He lived through the rules of five monarchs through the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he faithfully served the Duke of York through the 1670s and early 1680s. This gave him military and political advancement through his brave, clever skill. Churchill helped secure James on the throne. However, just three years later he left his Catholic teacher for the Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. He was honored for his services at William's coronation with the earldom of Marlborough (pronounced /'mɔ:l bəɹə/). He served in the early years of the Nine Years' War and became famous. However, charges of Jacobitism made him fall from office. For some time, he was in the Tower. When Queen Anne came to throne in 1702, however, Marlborough secured his fame and lots of money.
|John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough|
The Duke of Marlborough. Oil by Adriaen van der Werff.
|Awards||Order of the Garter|
His marriage to the quick-tempered Sarah Jennings – Anne's close friend – helped Marlborough's rise. He first became the Captain-Generalcy of British forces. Then he became a duke. Later, he became the richest of all Anne's subjects. Although in the end he could not completely crush his enemies, his victories allowed Britain to rise to very great power. Through him, the country grew more and more rich through the 18th century.
|Duke of Marlborough||1702–1722||Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough|
|Earl of Marlborough||1689–1722|
|Baron Churchill of Sandridge||1685–1722|
|Lord Churchill of Eyemouth||1682–1722||extinct|
|Prince of Mindelheim||1705–1714||Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria|
Titles and stylesEdit
- 26 May 1650 - 21 December 1682: John Churchill, Esq.
- 21 December 1682 – 14 May 1685: The Right Honourable The Lord Churchill of Eyemouth
- 14 May 1685 – 9 April 1689: The Right Honourable The Lord Churchill of Sandridge and Eyemouth
- 9 April 1689 – December 1702: The Right Honourable The Earl of Marlborough
- December 1702 – 16 June 1722: His Grace The Duke of Marlborough
|Wikisource has original writing related to this article:|
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- Chandler, David G (1998). A Guide to the Battlefields of Europe. Wordsworth Editions Limited. ISBN 1853266949
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- Churchill, Winston (2002). A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0304363936
- Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 1, vols. i & ii. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226106330
- Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 2, vols. iii & iv. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226106357
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- McKay, Derek (1977). Prince Eugene of Savoy. Thames and Hudson Ltd. ISBN 0500870071
- Miller, John. James II (2000). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300087284
- Tincey, John, (2005). Sedgemoor 1685: Marlborough's First Victory. Leo Cooper Ltd. ISBN 1844151476
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