John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

English soldier and statesman (1650-1722)

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough KG PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an important English soldier and statesman who lived in the rules of five monarchs in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he faithfully served James, Duke of York in the 1670s and the early 1680s. That gave him military and political advancement through his brave and clever skill. Churchill helped secure the Duke of York, now King James II, on the throne.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
John Churchill
The Duke of Marlborough. Oil by Adriaen van der Werff.
Born26 May 1650
Ashe House, Devon
Died16 June 1722 (aged 72)
Windsor Lodge
AllegianceEngland (1667–1707)
United Kingdom (1707–1722)
Service/branchBritish army
AwardsOrder of the Garter

However, just three years later he left the Catholic king for a Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. For Churchill's help during in the Glorious Revolution, William at his coronation made him Earl of Marlborough (pronounced /'mɔ:l bəɹə/).

Marlborough served during the early years of the Nine Years' War and became famous. However, charges of Jacobitism made him fall from office. For some time, he was imprisoned in the Tower. When Queen Anne came to throne in 1702, however, Marlborough secured his fame and lots of money.

His marriage to the irritable Sarah Jennings, Anne's close friend, helped Marlborough's rise. Marlborough first became the Captain-Generalcy of British forces and then became a duke. Later, he became the richest of Anne's subjects. In the end, he could not completely crush his enemies, but his victories allowed Britain to rise to very great power. Through him, Great Britain became richwer and richer in the 18th century.

Titles change

Title Years Followed by
Duke of Marlborough 1702–1722 Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough
Earl of Marlborough 1689–1722
Baron Churchill of Sandridge 1685–1722
Lord Churchill of Eyemouth 1682–1722 extinct
Prince of Mindelheim 1705–1714 Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria

Titles and styles change

  • 26 May 1650 - 21 December 1682: John Churchill, Esq.
  • 21 December 1682 – 14 May 1685: The Right Honourable The Lord Churchill of Eyemouth
  • 14 May 1685 – 9 April 1689: The Right Honourable The Lord Churchill of Sandridge and Eyemouth
  • 9 April 1689 – December 1702: The Right Honourable The Earl of Marlborough
  • December 1702 – 16 June 1722: His Grace The Duke of Marlborough

References change

  • Barnett, Correlli (1999). Marlborough. Wordsworth Editions Limited. ISBN 184022200X
  • Chandler, David G (1998). A Guide to the Battlefields of Europe. Wordsworth Editions Limited. ISBN 1853266949
  • Chandler, David G (2003). Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd. ISBN 186227195X
  • Chesterton, G. K. (2008). A Short History of England. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 0554106728
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0304363936
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 1, vols. i & ii. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226106330
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 2, vols. iii & iv. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226106357
  • Coxe, William (1847). Memoirs of the Duke of Marlborough: 6 volumes. London
  • Field, Ophelia (2002). The Favourite: Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 034076807X
  • Gregg, Edward (2001). Queen Anne. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09024-2
  • Hamilton, Elizabeth (1968). The Backstairs Dragon: The Life of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. Hamish Hamilton
  • Hibbert, Christopher (2001). The Marlboroughs. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0670886777
  • Holmes, Richard (2008). Marlborough: England's Fragile Genius. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007225712
  • Jones, J. R (1993). Marlborough. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521375932
  • Lynn, John A (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman. ISBN 0582056292
  • Macaulay, Thomas (1968). The History of England (abridged). Penguin Books. ISBN 0140431330
  • McKay, Derek (1977). Prince Eugene of Savoy. Thames and Hudson Ltd. ISBN 0500870071
  • Miller, John. James II (2000). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300087284
  • Tincey, John, (2005). Sedgemoor 1685: Marlborough's First Victory. Leo Cooper Ltd. ISBN 1844151476
  • Trevelyan, G. M (1930–34). England Under Queen Anne: 3 volumes. Longmans, Green and co.