East Asian Tungusic-speaking peoples who lived in the northeast of China, later known as Manchuria
- Twitchett, Herbert Franke et al. (1994). The Cambridge History of China: Alien Regimes and Border States, p. 216.
- Holcombe, Charles. (2011). A History of East Asia : from the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-first Century, p. 129.
- Chun-gil Kim The History of Korea, pp. 76-77.