Manchu people

East Asian ethnic group native to northeastern China (Manchuria)
(Redirected from Manchu)

The Manchu people[1] are a Tungusic people who came from Manchuria (today's Northeastern China). In ancient times they were called "Juchen". During their rise in the seventeenth century they conquered the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, which established a republican government in its place.

Manchu (Manju, Man)
满族
Manchuguard.jpg
Total population
approx. 10.68 million (2000) [1]
Regions with significant populations
 China (Heilongjiang · Jilin · Liaoning)
There may also be members in Taiwan, United States, Canada and Japan.
Languages
Manchu · Mandarin Chinese
Religion
Buddhism, Christianity and other religions
Related ethnic groups
Xibe, other Tungusic peoples

The Qing Dynasty required by law that all males must wear a hairstyle called the Manchu queue, in which men had to shave the front of their heads and wear a long braid on the back of their heads.

the Jurchens (Manchus) were former Ming subjects but were rejecting their previous status and revolting when Nurhaci declared the Later Jin dynasty in 1616 and his Seven Grievances in 1618 calling for revenge against the Ming killing his father and grandfather.[2]

Local Han civilian militias were used by the Qing government during the White Lotus rebellion instead of using extra Manchu bannermen.[3][4][5][6]

Manchu bannermen and Mongol Bannermen in the banner garrison of Zhenjiang, including the Manchu banner commander Hailong, committed suicide after slaughtering their own wives and children after the British defeated them in the Battle of Chinkiang in 1842.[7] The Manchu bannermen of the banner garrison in Zhapu killed their own wives and children before committing suicide after the British defeated them in the Battle of Chapu in 1842 while the non-banner Han Chinese soldiers did not commit suicide and stayed alive.[8][9] Han Green Standard Army soldiers abandoned the Manchu bannermen to die.[10][11][12][13] British witnesses said that the Manchu population of the Zhenjiang garrison was effectively extinct as the corpses of Manchu men, women and children littered the garrison. "Dead bodies of Tartars in every house we entered, principally women and children thrown into wells or otherwise murdered by their own people. A great number of those who escaped our fire committed suicide after destroying their families; the loss of life has been appalling, and it may be said that the Manchu race in this city is extinct."[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

In Zhenjiang, As the Manchu garrison had been in the habit of calling the Chinese .6 disloyalists , ” the Fu Kien braves sided with the enemy and set fire to the town . The foreigners then got over the wall and burnt the Manchu quarter, the Assistant Tartar-General and the Acting Sub-Prefect losing their lives, and the taotai escaping to Kashing, which place, as also Hangchow, was now threatened too.[24][25][26] Han Chinese civilians gathered to watch the British kill the Manchus in the battle of Zhenjiang, even brining bowls of rice while spectating : "... and their fellow - countrymen , and in danger themselves , from their position , of being shot , were coolly employed eating their bowls of rice ."[27][28][29][30][31][32] The British observed the Manchus killing their own children and wives and committing suicide as they lost : “As we marched along the walls, I saw, what as a novice in this description of warfare shocked me much, old men, women and children, cutting each other's throats, and drowning themselves by the dozen; and no one either attempting or apparently showing any inclination to save the poor wretches, nor in fact regarding them with more notice than they would a dead horse carried through the streets of London to the kennel."[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40] “ After we had forced our way over piles of furniture, placed to barricade the door, we entered an open court strewed with rich stuffs and covered with clotted blood; and upon the steps leading to the hall of ancestors,' there were two bodies of youthful Tartars cold and stiff, much alike, apparently brothers. Having gained the threshold of their abode, they had died where they had fallen, from the loss of blood. Stepping over these bodies, we entered the hall, and met, face to face, three women seated, a mother and two daughters; and at their feet lay to bodies of elderly men, with their throats cut from ear to ear, their senseless heads resting upon the feet of their relations. To the right were two yonng girls, beautiful and delicate, crouching over, and endeavoring to conceal a living soldier."[41]

Southern Han Chinese coolies helped the British and French destroy Qing Manchu Eight Banner armies at the Battle of Taku Forts (1860).[42]

25,000 Manchus were slaughtered by Taiping forces in Nanjing.[43]

At the Temple of Heaven all seven daughters of the Manchu official Yulu were gang raped on August 11 by Eight Nation Alliance soldiers after Yulu committed suicide.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50]

Women's chastity was guarded by keeping them in the inner quarters of the house in Han culture and Manchus adopted this practice from Han after the Qing was founded.[51]

The Manchu are still a separate ethnicity from the Han Chinese and are categorized as a separate ethnic minority by the government of China but the majority of Manchus no longer speak their own language much as the majority of the Irish people remain separate from English but speak English as their first language.

Other websitesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Manchu:   Manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolian: Манж
  2. Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 0804746842.
  3. DAI, YINGCONG (2009). "Civilians Go into Battle: Hired Militias in the White Lotus War, 1796-1805". Asia Major. 22 (2): 145–78. JSTOR 41649980.
  4. https://web.archive.org/web/20190802222345/http://www2.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/file/1405qWXADQr.pdf https://ur.booksc.me/book/26745377/9d8cd5
  5. Elleman, Bruce A. (2005). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Warfare and History. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 1134610084.
  6. https://quizlet.com/356634651/hist-484201-final-exam-preparation-flash-cards/ https://tr.sng1lib.org/book/698651/f87a37?dsource=recommend[permanent dead link] https://epdf.pub/modern-chinese-warfare-1795-1989.html
  7. Elliott, Mark (June 1990). "Bannerman and Townsman: Ethnic Tension in Nineteenth-Century Jiangnan". Late Imperial China. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 11 (1): 36–74. doi:10.1353/late.1990.0005. S2CID 143693253. Archived from the original on 2013-07-25. {{cite journal}}: Check |url= value (help)
  8. Makeham, John, ed. (2008). China: The World's Oldest Living Civilization Revealed. Ancient civilizations Eyewitness travel guides. Thames & Hudson. p. 331. ISBN 978-0500251423. The 1,600 Manchu bannermen , badly equipped and trained , had defended the city desperately . Facing defeat , many of them killed their wives and children and then hanged themselves rather than surrender to the foreigners .
  9. Rait, Robert Sangster (1903). The life and campaigns of Hugh, first Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal. Westminster, A. Constable & Co., Ltd. p. 265.
  10. Lovell, Julia (2015). The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams, and the Making of Modern China. ABRAMS. p. 27. ISBN 978-1468313239.
  11. Lovell, Julia (2015). The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams, and the Making of Modern China. ABRAMS, Incorporated (Ignition). p. 70. ISBN 978-1468313239.
  12. https://books.google.com/books?id=tq1viJQK1AsC&pg=PT189&dq=%22not+their+fight%22+manchu+british&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiZpOmkzbb5AhXmXvEDHQdJDwsQ6AF6BAgDEAM https://rationalityofaith.wordpress.com/2016/05/18/notes-and-comments-on-julia-lovells-the-opium-war/[permanent dead link] https://lukeford.net/blog/?p=70956 https://chinglican.synology.me/2016/05/18/notes-and-comments-on-julia-lovells-the-opium-war/ https://chinglican.synology.me/?p=9311
  13. 甘, 棠 (2018-08-29). "鸦片战争之镇江战役". 美篇,中老年兴趣社区. Archived from the original on 2020-03-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  14. Rait, Robert Sangster (1903). The life and campaigns of Hugh, first Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal. Westminster, A. Constable & Co., Ltd. p. 275.
  15. "Opium War: 1839 - 1842". The British Empire.
  16. Forrest, George W. (March 1904). "VISCOUNT GOUGH". Blackwood's magazine. Edinburgh W. Blackwood.
  17. https://archive.org/stream/blackwoodsmagazi175edinuoft/blackwoodsmagazi175edinuoft_djvu.txt https://archive.org/stream/cu31924088002120/cu31924088002120_djvu.txt https://www.quora.com/Were-the-West-and-Japan-really-surprised-that-the-Qing-empire-was-so-easily-defeated-in-the-Opium-Wars
  18. "Historical Time Line 1850 - 1874". Royal Marines. Archived from the original on 2019-03-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  19. Rait, Robert Sangster (1903). The Life and Campaigns of Hugh, First Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal, Volume 1. A. Constable & Company, Limited. p. 275.
  20. "Chinese Imperialism".
  21. Farwell, Byron (1988). Eminent Victorian Soldiers: Seekers of Glory (illustrated ed.). W.W. Norton. p. 32. ISBN 0393305333.
  22. Giddings, Robert (1994). Imperial Echoes: Eye-Witness Accounts of Victoria's Little Wars (illustrated ed.). Pen and Sword. p. 67. ISBN 085052394X.
  23. Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1808). The History of China, Volume 2 (revised ed.). W. Thacker & Company. p. 129.
  24. Parker, Edward Harper; Yuan, Wei (1888). Chinese Account of the Opium War. Kelly & Walsh, Limited. p. 61.
  25. As the Manchu garrison had been in the habit of calling the Chinese*" disloyalists," the Fu Kien braves sided with the enemy and set fire to the town.
  26. ... British: 'As the Manchu garrison had been in the habit of calling the Chinese disloyal, the Fujian braves sided with the enemy and set fire to the town.
  27. The Chinese Repository. 1844. p. 64.
  28. ... foreigners and their fellow-countrymen, and in danger themselves, from their position, of being shot, were coolly employed eating their bowls of rice.
  29. Loch, Granville Gower (1843). The Closing Events of the Campaign in China: The Operations in the Yang-tze-kiang and Treaty of ... J. Murray. p. 104. ... foreigners and their fellow-coimtrymen, and in danger themselves, from their position, of being shot, were coolly employed eating their bowls of rice.
  30. The Closing Events of the Campaign in China: The Operations ...
  31. The Closing Events of the Campaign in China: The Operations ...
  32. Far from escaping the theatre of war, its inhabitants were standing, spectating, in the streets, 'coolly employed eating their bowls of rice ... although ...
  33. The United Service Magazine, Volume 42. H. Colburn. 1843. p. 446. As we marched along the walls I saw what , as a novice in this description of warfare , shocked me much , —old men , women , and children , cutting each ...
  34. Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal. 1843. p. 446. As we marched along the walls I saw what , as a novice in this description of warfare , shocked me much , -old men , women , and children , cutting each ...
  35. The Chinese Repository, Volume 13. Kraus Reprint. 1844. p. 65. “ As we marched along the walls , I saw , what as a novice in this description of warfare shocked me much , old men , women and children , cutting each ...
  36. Rowntree, Joshua (1906). The Imperial Drug Trade: A Re-statement of the Opium Question, in the Light of Recent Evidence and New Developments in the East (2 ed.). Methuen. p. 61. ... who resolved to sweep the town from house to house , As we marched along the walls , I saw , what as a novice in this description of warfare shocked me ...
  37. Lewis, Eric (1910). Black Opium: An Account of a "morally Indefensible" Trade in "this Horrible Drug," with an Appeal to the Churches in Great and Greater Britain to Unite in One Great Concerted Effort, Calling Upon Our Country to Pay the Price of a God-honouring Ending. Marshall Bros. p. 26. ... that they were mowed down like grass , and that gutters flowed with their innocent blood . " Lord Ellenborough , who had conduct of the first war , pleading in the House of Lords against a second war , thus referred to the first ...
  38. Rowntree, Joshua (1906). The Imperial Drug Trade: A Re-statement of the Opium Question, in the Light of Recent Evidence and New Developments in the East (2 ed.). Methuen. p. 61. They really put me to the blush when they reasoned with me on the injustice of the case , and the wanton atrocities committed by our men .
  39. STAPLETON, Augustus Granville (1857). A Letter to the Bradford Foreign Affairs Committee. p. 7. ... and high sense of honour of these people . They really put me to the blush , when they reasoned with 6 me on the injustice of the case , and 7.
  40. Stapleton, Augustus Granville (1866). Intervention and Non-intervention; Or, The Foreign Policy of Great Britain from 1790 to 1865. J. Murray. p. 161. They really put me to the · blush , when they reasoned with me on the injustice • of the case , and on the wanton atrocities committed by our men .
  41. The Chinese Repository. 1844. p. 66.
  42. India. Quarter Master General's Department. Intelligence Branch (1884). China : Being a Military Report on the North-eastern Portions of the Provinces of Chih-li and Shan-tung, Nanking and Its Approaches, Canton and Its Approaches: Together with an Account of the Chinese Civil, Naval and Military Administrations, and a Narrative of the Wars Between Great ..., Volume 2. Government Central Branch Press. p. 28, 29. The Chinese coolies entertained in 1857 from the inhabitants of South China, renegades though they were, served the British faithfully and cheer fully before Canton, and throughout the operations in North China in 1860 they likewise proved in valuable. Their coolness under fire was admirable. At the assault of the Peihc Forts in 1860 they carried the French ladders to the ditch, and, standing in the water up to their necks, supported them with their bands to enable the storming party to cross. It was not usual to take them into action; they, however, bore the dangers of a distant fire with the greatest composure, evincing a strong desire to close with their compatriots, and engage them in mortal combat with their bamboos.-(Fisher.)
  43. The Moravian magazine, a monthly journal of the Church of the United brethren. 1854. From this point they advanced towards Nanking , which they took on the 20th of March , and massacred no less than 25,000 of the Tartar race in cold blood . The possession of this city gave them an immense advantage ; indeed , from its ...
  44. Tape amplifier (2021-10-31). "In June 1900, the Eight-Power Alliance invaded Tianjin, and the Death Method of the Governor and His Family The Strategy of the Governor directly under the Governor: "Protect Tianjin" Luo Rongguang's plea for help The blood of Tianjin City flowed into a river the Defense Of Beijing and Tianjin failed again Only this end Was this the end Of later generations, Yu Lu's family was tragically retaliated by the coalition forces". LaiTimes.
  45. 磁带放音机 (2021-10-31). "1900年6月,八国联军攻入天津,直隶总督及家人这种死法 直隶总督的策略:"保天津" 罗荣光的求救 天津城血流成河 京津保卫战再次失败 只有这种结局了 后世评价 裕禄家人惨遭联军报复". 天天看点.
  46. "1900年6月,八国联军攻入天津,直隶总督及家人这种死法". new.qq. 2021-04-28.
  47. "1900年6月,八國聯軍攻入天津,直隸總督及家人這種死法". 每日頭條. 2019-02-16.
  48. "直隶总督裕禄的7个女儿 1900年6月,八国联军攻入天津,直隶总督及家人这种死法". 最新文章. 2022-01-02.
  49. "八国联军裕禄女眷 1900年6月,八国联军攻入天津,直隶总督及家人这种死法". shgonyu. 2021-12-24.
  50. "直隶总督裕禄女儿 1900年6月,八国联军攻入天津,直隶总督及家人这种死法". philipsmacintosh. 2022-01-07.
  51. Wang, Yanning (2013). Reverie and Reality: Poetry on Travel by Late Imperial Chinese Women. Lexington Books. p. 117. ISBN 978-0739179840. It happened that, because the emperors chose to see officials at the royal abode Yuanmingyuan 圓明園, ... the Manchu women had largely adopted the Han tradition according to which women should stay inside the inner quarters to ensure ...