Монгол Улс (Mongolian)
Location of Mongolia (green)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Legislature||State Great Khural|
|formed 209 BC|
|December 29, 1911|
|November 26, 1924|
• Independence recognized by the Republic of China
|January 5, 1946|
|February 13, 1992|
|1,566,000 km2 (605,000 sq mi) (18th)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
• 2015 census
|2.07/km2 (5.4/sq mi) (194th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$47 billion (115th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$13.7 billion (133rd)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2018)|| 0.735|
high · 92nd
• Summer (DST)
|Date format||yyyy.mm.dd (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||MN|
|Internet TLD||.mn, .мон|
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia and Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south, east and west. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
Until recently, most of the people there were Buddhists. Many of them are nomads (people who always move from place to place and do not stay in one home), but this is changing. The largest city, and capital city is Ulaanbaatar. It is where about 38% of the population live. This has been spelled Ulan Bator/ Ulaan Battor and other ways in the past. The north and east parts of the country have many mountains. Part of the south part is the Gobi Desert. There are 2,791,272 people living in Mongolia. The country is the 18th biggest country in the world, with an area of 1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi).
The area which is Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires. This was until the great 'Mongol Empire' was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. After the Yuan Dynasty collapsed, the Mongols became nomads again. After the 16th century, Mongolia were influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. By the end of the 17th century, most of Mongolia was part of an area ruled by the Qing Dynasty. When the Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1911, Mongolia declared independence. But they had to fight against the Chinese. They were helped by the Soviet Union. In 1921, the world accepted its independence. Shortly after the death of Bogd Khaan, the last monarch of Mongolia the monarchy was replaced by a communist government in 1924, and the country was renamed the Mongolian People's Republic. Up until the fall of the Soviet Union, Mongolia was a satellite state for the Soviets. The Mongolian Red Cross Society was set up in 1939. It has its headquarters in Ulaanbaator. Following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia's interest in Mongolia has declined. China and South Korea are currently Mongolia's main trade and political partners.
Mongolia is a parliamentary republic. People vote for their government. The President of Mongolia is elected to a four-year term, and cannot be elected President more than twice. The current President is Khaltmaagiin Battulga. He was first elected as President on July 7, 2017.
Mongolia has a steppe climate. It has very cold winters and mild summers. Recently, winters have become very cold. This has killed many people and cattle. On June 2, 2008, 52 people and 200,000 head of cattle died in heavy blizzards in Mongolia.
On June 2, 2009, it was said that 15 people and 10,000 head of cattle had died by this date in Mongolia.
April 1–2, 2010 had temperatures plummet to -50 degrees in Mongolia’s Tuul valley, A nomad named Urna said she bought 400 bundles of grass to feed the animals in preparation for more bad weather. The Mongolian Red Cross has said that about 4,500,000 livestock died as a result of the bad weather this year . Tume, who lives in Ulan Bator, said that he had noticed that there were several really harsh winters in a row too. He blamed climate change, but experts said that overgrazing by cattle had also killed off most of the country’s grassland.
Mongolia known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" or "Country of Blue Sky" (Mongolian: Mönkh khökh tengeriin oron - Мөнх хөх тэнгэрийн орон) because it has over 250 sunny days a year.
Mongolia is the world's 19th-largest country (after Iran). It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peru. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan but its westernmost point is only 38 kilometers (24 mi) away from Kazakhstan.
The geography of Mongolia is varied, with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Most of Mongolia consists of steppes, with forested areas comprising 11.2% of the total land area. The highest point in Mongolia is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif, at a height of 4,374 m (14,350 ft).
The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian, and is spoken by 95% of the population. A variety of dialects of Oirat and Buryatare are spoken across the country. Turkic languages, such as Kazakh and Tuvan, are also spoken in the western part of the country.
Today, Mongolian is written using the Cyrillic alphabet, although in the past it was written using the Mongolian script. The traditional alphabet is being slowly reintroduced through schools recently.
Russian is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia due to their diplomatic ties as former communist states. However English has been gradually replacing Russian as the second language in order to become part of the world economy. Korean has gained popularity as tens of thousands of Mongolians work and study in South Korea. Interest in Chinese has been growing because of the neighboring power.
|January 1||New Year|
|January Or February||Old new year (Tsagaan sar)|
|March 8||International Woman's Day|
|June 1||Children's day|
|July 11–15||Naadam Holiday|
|December 29||Independence day|
- "Official Documents to be in Mongolian Script". UB Post. June 21, 2011. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "Mongolia". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. S2CID 73642272. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger’s sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people's elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland, and Senegal.
- Odonkhuu, Munkhsaikhan (February 12, 2016). "Mongolia: A Vain Constitutional Attempt to Consolidate Parliamentary Democracy". ConstitutionNet. International IDEA. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
Mongolia is sometimes described as a semi-presidential system because, while the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to the SGKh, the president is popularly elected, and his/her powers are much broader than the conventional powers of heads of state in parliamentary systems.
- "Renewed 2015-2045 population projection". www.1212.mn. Mongolian Statistical Information Service. January 1, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- "2015 population and housing by census of mongolia". www.1212.mn. Mongolian Statistical Information Service. January 1, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, January 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Mongolia". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
- "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. December 10, 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "Mongolia Standard Time is GMT (UTC) +8, some areas of Mongolia use GMT (UTC) +7". Time Temperature.com. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2007.
- "Clock changes in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia". timeanddate.com. Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
- Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved on 12 March 2009.
- "Population density (people per km2 of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- "Population of all countries from largest to smallest". World Atlas. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Dust Storm over East Asia". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. March 4, 2008.
- "Snowstorm kills 21 in Mongolia". Thaindian News.
- Denver's Leading Local News: Weather, Traffic, Sports and more | Denver, Colorado | 9NEWS.com | 9news.com
- Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Coldest Mongolian winter in decades - DW - 02.04.2010". DW.COM.
- "Mongolia Climate - Retrieve the average temperatures and rains in Mongolia & in Ulaan baatar". www.e-mongol.com.
- "Country Nicknames: Top 40 best nation aliases". May 31, 2013.
- Leonov, Tatyana. "Nomadic trails in the land of the blue sky". www.bbc.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "3. MONGOLIAN FORESTRY SECTOR". www.fao.org.
- Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 978-99929-0-627-9, p. 46
- Staff, Guardian (October 27, 2006). "Mongolia: Essential information" – via www.theguardian.com.
- AnydayGuide. "National Independence Day in Mongolia / December 29, 2017". AnydayGuide. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- Expedition trip to the North-West Mongolia, Tomsk State University and the University of Hovd, cooperation. Video. Archived 2011-08-08 at the Wayback Machine
- The United Nations source does not order the countries according to their population densities, but mentions the population count and the area of the countries. In the World Atlas reference, sorting the countries by Population Density (km2.) shows that Mongolia is the least densely populated. The World Bank source might appear to contradict this fact, but Greenland is not an independent country; therefore, it is not considered in this case.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mongolia.|
- Mongolia's UK embassy- Embassy of Mongolia.
- Mongolia’s American/USA embassy-  Archived 2009-08-04 at the Wayback Machine.
- MIAT (Mongolian airways)- Alternative Airlines. Safety concerns exist about some of the older and less reliable aircraft in its domestic fleet.
- "Mongolia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Mongolian Open Government (by Mongolia's Prime Minister) (in Mongolian and English) (uses, but does not need Macromedia Flash)
- Mongolian Red Cross Society- Mongolian Red Cross Society Profile
- Mongolian Red Cross Society- Official Red Cross Web Site