Mongols

ethnic group native to Mongolia and neighbouring areas

The name Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol) explains one or more ethnic groups. A hard definition includes the Mongols proper (self-designation Monggol), which can be split into eastern and western Mongols. In a bigger sense, the Mongol peoples also people who speak a Mongolic language but use other self-designations, such as the Kalmyks of eastern Europe.

Mongols
Genghis Khan.jpg
Total population
12 million
Regions with significant populations
Mongolia, China, Russia
Languages
Mongolic languages
Religion
Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism and Shamanism with minorities of Christianity, Islam, Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Khalkha, Daurs, Buryats, Evenks, Dorbots, Kalmyks, Oirats, Chakhars, Tumeds, Ordoses, Bayad, Dariganga, Urianhai, Uzemchin and Zakhchin.

The name Monggol has its meaning in the Tungusic languages and usually means "the invincible ones". At first it was applied to a small and still insignificant tribe in the area of the Onon river. In the 13th century it grew into an umbrella term for a large group of tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan.


Mongol Oirat Kalmyk leader Ja Lama skinned a Kazakh alive.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

The Kalmyk Oirat Mongol Ja Lama Dambijatsan skinned the Kazakh Akynbek Tokyluly alive after fighting the Kerei Kazakhs in the Altai mountains. The Kazakhs claim the Kalmyk Oirats killed Kazakh children and fed them to dogs and birds and tried to kidnap Kazakh girls and force convert Kazakhs to Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism from Islam.[8][9] The skin is now in the National Museum in Prague, Czech republic after a Czech soldier, Vaclav Kopetsky of the Czechslovak legion obtained the flayed skin and his great grandson gave it to the museum.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]

Deed Mongols in the Tayijinar banner of Qinghai were slaughtered by Kazakhs invading from Xinjiang in 1943.[38]

The religion of the MongolsEdit

The polytheistic (believing in many gods) Mongols thought that good and evil spirits controlled the world. They also believed in a sky god, who ruled all the spirits. They called him Tengri (TENG gree), which means, "the great god of heaven".[39] The Mongols lived in fear of the spirits and hoped for blessings from them.

Every yurt had small idols made of felt.[39] The wives and daughters of the nobles made these idols at sewing parties.[39] The Mongols believed that these idols protected their families and animals. Before every meal they put food and drink on the idols' lips. They also prayed to them.[39]

The Mongols believed that some men, called shamans (SHAH muns), had power over the spirits. The shamans were the priests of the traditional Mongol religion, called shamanism (SHAH muh NIZ um).[39] The shamans were medicine men and witch doctors who used a special language when doing their magical rituals.[39] The Mongols talked to their shamans before making big choices and followed their advice.[39]

Other religionsEdit

The later empire of the Mongols had many people with many religions, including Christians.[39] The most important Christian group in the Mongol Empire was the Nestorian Church, sometimes called the Church of the East. These Christians were named for Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople.[39]

United StatesEdit

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Anglo-Mongolian Society (1983). Journal of the Anglo-Mongolian Society, Volumes 8-1. p. 35. On one occasion , a man from Halh came to Ja Lama's camp claiming to be his brother , and demanding respect for this reason ... The Diluv Hutagt tells one story of how a Kazakh bandit was skinned alive by Dambiijantsan , and even gives ...
  2. Kaplan, Edward H.; Whisenhunt, Donald W.; Schwarz, Henry G., eds. (1994). Opuscula Altaica: Essays Presented in Honor of Henry Schwarz. Vol. 19 of Studies on East Asia (illustrated ed.). Western Washington. p. 159. ISBN 0914584197. ... the chest of a Kazakh chieftain be cut open and his heart torn out , after which the skin was flayed from his body . ... Vladimirtsov met Ja Lama in Astrakhan in September 1917.62 On March 7 , 1914 , the Russian diplomatic agent in ...
  3. Kuzmin, Sergius L. (2011). Terentyev, Andrey (ed.). Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation. Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. p. 125. ISBN 9380359470. and took the skin off a Kazakh; Choijon Lama ate the heart of a White Guard soldier;
  4. Australian National University. Institute of Advanced Studies (2000). East Asian History, Nummers 19-20. Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University. p. 81. For the Volga Kalmyk lama Dambijangčan ( Dambijatsan ; d . 1922 ) and his Page ( 127 ) political role in the Autonomous Government period , see Bawden 1989 , pp . 192 , 197 , 198 , 199 , 251-4 . Cf. also Lattimore 1955 , pp.9 ...
  5. https://www.eastasianhistory.org/sites/default/files/article-content/19/EAH19_03.pdf
  6. https://vk.com/wall-6051001_88721?lang=en https://vk.com/wall-7206469_28997?lang=en https://www.academia.edu/36314621/Ja_Lama_with_his_Legends_by_Vello_Vaartnou https://www.ayurzana.mn/newsView/175 https://heropresstwo.blogspot.com/2015/12/ https://heropresstwo.blogspot.com/2015/ https://karavansara.live/tag/dambijatsan/ https://karavansara.live/2015/08/31/pulp-history-the-legend-of-the-false-lama/
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  29. "Утопление вид смертельной казни. Малоизвестные и экзотические виды смертной казни". tenona.ru.
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  31. "Най-жестокото изпълнение в Alcatrase. Най-жестокото и болезнено изпълнение. Най-жестокото изпълнение в кървавата пещ Alcatrase". thebridgestudio.ru.
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  33. "Самые ужасные средневековые пытки для девушек. Способы казни в разные времена (16 фото) Рисунки казни девушек обезглавливание". tugulympu.ru.
  34. "Tio värsta avrättningar i den antika världen Den värsta tortyren för kvinnor. Video om värsta avrättningar i världen". vit-vladimir.ru. 19.07.2020. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. "10 най-лоши екзекуции на древния свят Най-лошото мъчение за жените. Видео за най-лошите екзекуции в света". vit-vladimir.ru. 19.07.2020. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  36. "Истязание дырок. Какие пытки были специально придуманы для женщин. Растворение в кислоте". chistenkoeschool.ru.
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  38. Anglo-Mongolian Society (1983). Journal of the Anglo-Mongolian Society, Volumes 8-1. p. 48. The Deed8 Mongols (meaning 'Mongols living in an upper position') came from Xinjiang around 300 years ago and herded in the vast area of central and northwest Qinghai in the old Tayijinar Banner. Then, in the year 1943, many Kazakh swept down from Xinjiang. In pitched battles, the Mongols were outnumbered and many killed. Survivors fled to such places as Tibet, Gansu, the Qinghai lake vicinity, and Duland. Later, most of the Kazakh returned to Xinjiang and in 1959, only some of the previous 1,500 or so Mongols returned to Urtmören9. In 1983, the remaining Kazakh moved to Xinjiang. (In the past two years, about some 200-400 have returned to the Golmud administrative district, apparently dissatisfied with conditions in Xinjiang.)10
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5 39.6 39.7 39.8 Koontz, Terri; Mark Sidwell, S.M.Bunker (June 2005). World Studies for Christian Schools. Greenville, South Carolina: Bob Jones University Press. ISBN 1-59166-431-4.

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