Open main menu

Wikipedia β

List of countries by Human Development Index

World map indicating the categories of Human Development Index by country (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on March 21, 2017).
     Very high      High      Medium      Low      Data unavailable
World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on March 21, 2017).
     0.900 and over      0.850–0.899      0.800–0.849      0.750–0.799      0.700–0.749      0.650–0.699      0.600–0.649      0.550–0.599      0.500–0.549      0.450–0.499      0.400–0.449      0.350–0.399      0.349 and under      Data unavailable

This is a list of all countries by Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report (released on 2 November 2011, put together based on estimates for 2011. It covers 185 member states of the United Nations (out of 193), along with Hong Kong (of the People's Republic of China), and the Palestinian territories; 8 UN member states are not included because there is not enough data. The average HDI of regions of the World and groups of countries are also included for comparison.

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard way of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an under-developed country, and also to measure the effect of economic policies on quality of life. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq[1] and Indian economist Amartya Sen.[2]

Countries fall into four wide human development categories, each of which has 47 countries: Very High Human Development, High Human Development, Medium Human Development and Low Human Development (46 countries in this category).

From 2007 to 2010, the first two categories was referred to as developed countries, and the last two are all grouped in developing countries. The original "high human development" category has been split into two as above in the report for 2007.

Some older groupings (high/medium/low income countries) that have been removed were based on the gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, and have been replaced by another index based on the gross national income (GNI) in purchasing power parity per capita.

The country with the largest decrease in HDI since 1998 is Zimbabwe, falling from 0.514 in 1998 to 0.140 in 2010. The country with the largest decrease since 2009 is Cape Verde, which decreased by 0.170.

Over half of the world's population live in countries with "medium human development" (51%), while less than a fifth (18%) of the world's population are in countries that are in the "low human development" category. Countries with "high" to "very high" human development account for less than a third of the world's total population (30%).

Contents

Complete list of countriesEdit

  •   = increase.
  •   = steady.
  •   = decrease.

Very high human developmentEdit

Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
1     Norway 0.949   0.001
2   (1)   Australia 0.939   0.002
2     Switzerland 0.939   0.001
4     Germany 0.926   0.002
5   (1)   Denmark 0.925   0.002
5   (1)   Singapore 0.925   0.001
7   (1)   Netherlands 0.924   0.001
8     Ireland 0.923   0.003
9     Iceland 0.921   0.002
10   (1)   Canada 0.920   0.001
10   (1)   United States 0.920   0.002
12     Hong Kong 0.917   0.001
13     New Zealand 0.915   0.002
14   (1)   Sweden 0.913   0.004
15   (1)   Liechtenstein 0.912   0.001
16     United Kingdom 0.909   0.001
17     Japan 0.903   0.001
18     South Korea 0.901   0.002
19     Israel 0.899   0.001
20     Luxembourg 0.898   0.002
21   (1)   France 0.897   0.003
22   (1)   Belgium 0.896   0.001
23     Finland 0.895   0.002
24     Austria 0.893   0.001
25     Slovenia 0.890   0.002
26   (1)   Italy 0.887   0.006
Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
27   (1)   Spain 0.884   0.002
28     Czech Republic 0.878   0.003
29     Greece 0.866   0.001
30     Brunei 0.865   0.001
30   (1)   Estonia 0.865   0.002
32     Andorra 0.858   0.001
33   (1)   Cyprus 0.856   0.002
33   (2)   Malta 0.856   0.003
33     Qatar 0.856   0.001
36     Poland 0.855   0.003
37     Lithuania 0.848   0.002
38     Chile 0.847   0.002
38     Saudi Arabia 0.847   0.002
40     Slovakia 0.845   0.003
41     Portugal 0.843   0.002
42     United Arab Emirates 0.840   0.004
43     Hungary 0.836   0.002
44     Latvia 0.830   0.002
45     Argentina 0.827   0.001
45   (1)   Croatia 0.827   0.004
47   (1)   Bahrain 0.824   0.001
48   (1)   Montenegro 0.807   0.003
49   (1)   Russia 0.804   0.001
50   (1)   Romania 0.802   0.004
51   (1)   Kuwait 0.800   0.001

High human developmentEdit

Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
52   (1)   Belarus 0.796   0.002
52   (1)   Oman 0.796   0.001
54     Barbados 0.795   0.001
54     Uruguay 0.795   0.001
56   (1)   Bulgaria 0.794   0.002
56     Kazakhstan 0.794   0.001
58     Bahamas 0.792   0.002
59     Malaysia 0.789   0.010
60   (2)   Palau 0.788   0.005
60     Panama 0.788   0.003
62   (1)   Antigua and Barbuda 0.786   0.002
63     Seychelles 0.782   0.001
64     Mauritius 0.781   0.002
65   (1)   Trinidad and Tobago 0.780   0.001
66     Costa Rica 0.776   0.001
66     Serbia 0.776   0.001
68   (1)   Cuba 0.775   0.003
69   (1)   Iran 0.774  
70   (1)   Georgia 0.769   0.001
71   (1)   Turkey 0.767   0.003
71   (1)   Venezuela 0.767   0.002
73   (1)   Sri Lanka 0.766   0.002
74   (1)   Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.765   0.003
75     Albania 0.764   0.002
76   (2)   Lebanon 0.763  
77     Mexico 0.762   0.004
78   (1)   Azerbaijan 0.759   0.001
79     Brazil 0.754  
Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
79   (1)   Grenada 0.754   0.003
81   (1)   Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.750   0.003
82     Macedonia 0.748   0.002
83   (1)   Algeria 0.745   0.002
84   (1)   Armenia 0.743   0.002
84   (3)   Ukraine 0.743   0.005
86   (1)   Jordan 0.741  
87   (2)   Peru 0.740   0.003
87   (1)   Thailand 0.740   0.003
89   (2)   Ecuador 0.739  
90   (1)   China 0.738   0.010
91     Fiji 0.736   0.002
92   (1)   Mongolia 0.735   0.002
92   (2)   Saint Lucia 0.735  
94     Jamaica 0.730   0.001
95     Colombia 0.727   0.003
96   (1)   Dominica 0.726   0.002
97     Suriname 0.725   0.002
97     Tunisia 0.725   0.002
99   (2)   Dominican Republic 0.722   0.004
99     Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.722   0.002
101     Tonga 0.721   0.003
World 0.717
102   (2)   Libya 0.716   0.003
103     Belize 0.706  
104     Samoa 0.704   0.002
105     Maldives 0.701  
105   (3)   Uzbekistan 0.701   0.004

Medium human developmentEdit

Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
107   (2)   Moldova 0.699   0.002
108   (1)   Botswana 0.698  
109     Gabon 0.697   0.003
110     Paraguay 0.693   0.001
111     Egypt 0.691   0.003
111     Turkmenistan 0.691   0.003
113     Indonesia 0.689   0.003
114   (1)   Palestine 0.684   0.006
115     Vietnam 0.683   0.005
116   (2)   Philippines 0.682   0.003
117   (2)   El Salvador 0.680   0.002
118     Bolivia 0.674   0.003
119     South Africa 0.666   0.001
120     Kyrgyzstan 0.664   0.002
121     Iraq 0.649  
122     Cape Verde 0.648   0.002
123     Morocco 0.647   0.002
124     Nicaragua 0.645   0.003
125   (1)   Guatemala 0.640   0.003
125   (1)   Namibia 0.640   0.003
Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
127   (2)   Guyana 0.638  
127   (1)   Micronesia 0.638   0.001
129     Tajikistan 0.627   0.002
130     Honduras 0.625   0.002
131     India 0.624   0.009
132     Bhutan 0.607   0.003
133   Template:Country data Timor Leste 0.605   0.002
134     Vanuatu 0.597   0.001
135     Congo, Republic of the 0.592   0.003
135   (2)   Equatorial Guinea 0.592   0.010
137   (1)   Kiribati 0.588   0.002
138   (1)   Laos 0.586   0.004
139   (1)   Bangladesh 0.579   0.004
139   (1)   Ghana 0.579   0.004
139     Zambia 0.579   0.003
142     São Tomé and Príncipe 0.574   0.009
143     Cambodia 0.563   0.005
144     Nepal 0.558   0.003
145   (1)   Myanmar 0.556   0.004
146   (1)   Kenya 0.555   0.005
147   (1)   Pakistan 0.550   0.002

Low human developmentEdit

Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
148   (1)   Swaziland 0.541  
149   (4)   Syria 0.536   0.017
150     Angola 0.533   0.002
151   (1)   Tanzania 0.531   0.012
152   (1)   Nigeria 0.527   0.002
153   (1)   Cameroon 0.518   0.004
154   (1)   Papua New Guinea 0.516   0.001
154   (4)   Zimbabwe 0.516   0.009
156   (1)   Solomon Islands 0.515   0.002
157   (2)   Mauritania 0.513  
158   (1)   Madagascar 0.512   0.001
159   (3)   Rwanda 0.498   0.005
160     Comoros 0.497   0.001
160   (1)   Lesotho 0.497   0.002
162   (1)   Senegal 0.494   0.003
163   (1)   Haiti 0.493   0.003
163   (2)   Uganda 0.493   0.005
165     Sudan 0.490   0.002
166   (1)   Togo 0.487   0.003
167   (1)   Benin 0.485   0.004
168   (9)   Yemen 0.482   0.017
Rank Country HDI
2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change in rank from previous year[3] 2016 estimates for 2015
[3]
Change from previous year
[3]
169     Afghanistan 0.479  
170     Malawi 0.476   0.003
171   (1)   Côte d'Ivoire 0.474   0.008
172   (1)   Djibouti 0.473   0.003
173     Gambia 0.452   0.002
174     Ethiopia 0.448   0.007
175     Mali 0.442   0.004
176   (2)   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0.435   0.010
177     Liberia 0.427  
178   (1) Template:Country data Guinea Bissau 0.424   0.003
179   (2)   Eritrea 0.420   0.002
179   (3)   Sierra Leone 0.420   0.011
181   (1)   Mozambique 0.418   0.004
181   (2)   South Sudan 0.418   0.003
183   (1)   Guinea 0.414  
184     Burundi 0.404   0.002
185     Burkina Faso 0.402   0.003
186     Chad 0.396   0.002
187     Niger 0.353   0.002
188     Central African Republic 0.352   0.005

List of countries by continentEdit

AfricaEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
High human development
1   Mauritius 0.777
2   Seychelles 0.772
3   Algeria 0.736
4   Libya 0.724
5   Tunisia 0.721
Medium human development
6   Botswana 0.698
7   Egypt 0.690
8   Gabon 0.684
9   South Africa 0.666
10   Cape Verde 0.648

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Low human development
1   Central African Republic 0.352
2   Niger 0.353
3   Chad 0.396
4   Burkina Faso 0.402
5   Burundi 0.404
6   Guinea 0.411
7   South Sudan 0.418
7   Mozambique 0.418
9   Sierra Leone 0.420
9   Eritrea 0.420

AsiaEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Singapore 0.925
2   Hong Kong 0.917
3   Japan 0.903
4   South Korea 0.901
5   Israel 0.899
6   Brunei Darussalam 0.865
7   Cyprus 0.856
7   Qatar 0.856
9   Saudi Arabia 0.847
10   United Arab Emirates 0.840

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Low human development
1   Afghanistan 0.479
2   Yemen 0.482
3   Syria 0.536
Medium human development
4   Pakistan 0.550
5   Myanmar 0.556
6   Nepal 0.558
7   Cambodia 0.563
8   Bangladesh 0.579
9   Laos 0.586
10 Template:Country data Timor Leste 0.605

EuropeEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Norway 0.949
2   Switzerland 0.939
3   Germany 0.926
4   Denmark 0.925
5   Netherlands 0.924
6   Ireland 0.923
7   Iceland 0.921
8   Sweden 0.913
9   Liechtenstein 0.912
10   United Kingdom 0.909

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Medium human development
1   Moldova 0.699
High human development
2   Ukraine 0.743
2   Armenia 0.743
3   Macedonia 0.748
4   Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.750
5   Azerbaijan 0.759
6   Albania 0.764
7   Turkey 0.767
8   Georgia 0.769
9   Serbia 0.776
10   Kazakhstan 0.794


North America and the CaribbeanEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Canada 0.920
1   United States 0.920
High human development
3   Barbados 0.795
4   Bahamas 0.792
5   Antigua and Barbuda 0.786
6   Panama 0.788
7   Trinidad and Tobago 0.780
8   Costa Rica 0.776
9   Cuba 0.775
10   Mexico 0.762

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Low human development
1   Haiti 0.493
Medium human development
2   Honduras 0.625
3   Guatemala 0.640
4   Nicaragua 0.645
5   El Salvador 0.680
High human development
6   Belize 0.706
7   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.722
7   Dominican Republic 0.722
9   Dominica 0.726
10   Jamaica 0.730

South AmericaEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Chile 0.847
2   Argentina 0.827
High human development
3   Uruguay 0.795
4   Venezuela 0.767
5   Brazil 0.754
6   Peru 0.740
7   Ecuador 0.739
8   Colombia 0.727
9   Suriname 0.725
Medium human development
10   Paraguay 0.693

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Medium human development
1   Guyana 0.638
2   Bolivia 0.674
3   Paraguay 0.693
High human development
4   Suriname 0.725
5   Colombia 0.727
6   Ecuador 0.739
7   Peru 0.740
8   Brazil 0.754
9   Venezuela 0.767
10   Uruguay 0.795


OceaniaEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Australia 0.939
2   New Zealand 0.915
High human development
3   Palau 0.788
4   Fiji 0.736
5   Tonga 0.721
6   Samoa 0.704
Medium human development
7   Micronesia 0.638
8   Vanuatu 0.597
9   Kiribati 0.588
Low human development
10   Papua New Guinea 0.516

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2015 estimates for 2014
Low human development
1   Solomon Islands 0.515
2   Papua New Guinea 0.516
Medium human development
3   Kiribati 0.588
4   Vanuatu 0.597
5   Micronesia 0.638
High human development
6   Samoa 0.704
7   Tonga 0.721
8   Fiji 0.736
9   Palau 0.788
Very high human development
10   New Zealand 0.915

List of countries by non-continental regionEdit

Arab LeagueEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Qatar 0.856
2   Saudi Arabia 0.847
3   United Arab Emirates 0.840
4   Bahrain 0.824
5   Kuwait 0.800
High human development
6   Oman 0.796
7   Lebanon 0.763
8   Algeria 0.745
9   Jordan 0.741
10   Tunisia 0.725

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Low human development
1   Somalia 0.285
(2012 est.)
2   Djibouti 0.473
3   Yemen 0.482
4   Sudan 0.490
5   Comoros 0.497
6   Mauritania 0.513
7   Syria 0.536
Medium human development
8   Morocco 0.647
9   Iraq 0.649
10   Palestine Authority 0.684

Commonwealth of NationsEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Australia 0.939
2   Singapore 0.925
3   Canada 0.920
4   New Zealand 0.915
5   United Kingdom 0.909
6   Brunei Darussalam 0.865
7   Cyprus 0.856
7   Malta 0.856
High human development
9   Bahamas 0.795
10   Barbados 0.792

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Low human development
1   Mozambique 0.418
2   Sierra Leone 0.420
3   Gambia 0.452
4   Malawi 0.476
5   Uganda 0.493
6   Lesotho 0.497
7   Rwanda 0.498
8   Solomon Islands 0.515
9   Papua New Guinea 0.516
10   Cameroon 0.518

East Asia and the PacificEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2015 estimates for 2014
Very high human development
1   Australia 0.939
2   Singapore 0.925
3   Hong Kong 0.917
4   New Zealand 0.915
5   Japan 0.903
6   South Korea 0.901
7   Brunei Darussalam 0.865
High human development
8   Malaysia 0.789
9   Palau 0.788
10   Thailand 0.740

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2015 estimates for 2014
Low human development
1   Solomon Islands 0.515
2   Papua New Guinea 0.516
Medium human development
3   Myanmar 0.556
4   Cambodia 0.563
5   Laos 0.586
6   Kiribati 0.588
7   Vanuatu 0.597
8 Template:Country data Timor Leste 0.605
9   Micronesia 0.638
10   Philippines 0.682

European UnionEdit

10 highest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
Very high human development
1   Germany 0.926
2   Denmark 0.925
3   Netherlands 0.924
4   Ireland 0.923
5   Sweden 0.913
6   United Kingdom 0.909
7   Luxembourg 0.898
8   France 0.897
9   Belgium 0.896
10   Finland 0.895

10 lowest HDIs

Rank Country HDI
New 2016 estimates for 2015
High human development
1   Bulgaria 0.794
Very high human development
2   Romania 0.802
3   Croatia 0.827
4   Latvia 0.830
5   Hungary 0.836
6   Portugal 0.843
7   Slovakia 0.845
8   Lithuania 0.848
9   Poland 0.855
10   Malta 0.856

HDI by regions and groupsEdit

Region or group 2011
estimates
HDI[4]
2013
estimates
HDI[5]
2014
estimates
HDI[6]
2015
estimates
HDI
Very high human development
Very High Human Development 0.889 0.905 0.890 0.892
OECD 0.873 0.887 0.874 0.887
High human development
Europe and Central Asia 0.751 0.771 0.738 0.756
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.731 0.741 0.740 0.751
High Human Development 0.741 0.758 0.735 0.746
East Asia and the Pacific 0.671   0.683 0.703 0.720
World 0.682   0.694 0.702 0.717
Medium human development
Arab states 0.641   0.652 0.682 0.687
Small Island Developing States 0.640   0.648 0.665 0.667
Medium Human Development 0.630   0.640 0.614 0.631
South Asia 0.548   0.558 0.588 0.621
Low human development
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.463   0.475 0.502 0.523
Least Developed countries 0.439   0.449 0.487 0.508
Low Human Development 0.456   0.466 0.493 0.497

Countries missing from latest reportEdit

UN member states (latest UNDP data)Edit

Year Country HDI Rank Source
Publication Data
Very high human development
2009 2008   San Marino 0.961 21 [7]
2009 2008   Monaco 0.956 25 [7]
High human development
2009 2008   Marshall Islands 0.738 155 [7]
2009 2008   North Korea 0.733 156 [7]
2009 2008   Nauru 0.721 164 [7]
2009 2008   Tuvalu 0.711 168 [7]
Low human development
2009 2008   Somalia 0.364 229 [7]

Note: 2009 publication uses old HDI formula

Non-UN member states (latest UNDP data)Edit

Year Country or territory HDI Rank Source
Publication Data
High human development
N/A 2016   Kosovo 0.739 N/A [8]

Non-UN members (not calculated by the UNDP)Edit

Year Country or territory HDI Rank Source
Publication Data
Very high human development
2017 2015   Macau 0.905 17 [a]
2017 2015   Taiwan 0.885 27 [b]
2017 2015   Puerto Rico 0.845 40 [12]
2012 2010   Guadeloupe 0.822 39 [13]
2012 2010   Martinique 0.813 41 [13]
2009 2008   Jersey 0.985 2 [7]
2009 2008   Cayman Islands 0.983 4 [7]
2009 2008   Bermuda 0.981 7 [7]
2009 2008   Guernsey 0.975 9 [7]
2009 2008   Gibraltar 0.961 20 [7]
2009 2008   Norfolk Island 0.958 23 [7]
2009 2008   Faroe Islands 0.950 33 [7]
2009 2008   Isle of Man 0.950 34 [7]
2009 2008   British Virgin Islands 0.945 35 [7]
2009 2008   Falkland Islands 0.933 43 [7]
2009 2008   Aruba 0.908 49 [7]
2009 2008   Guam 0.901 54 [7]
High human development
2012 2010   New Caledonia 0.789 51 [13]
2012 2010   Wallis and Futuna 0.763 65 [13]
2012 2010   Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.762 66 [13]
2012 2010   Réunion 0.750 72 [13]
2012 2010   French Guiana 0.739 76 [13]
2012 2010   French Polynesia 0.737 77 [13]
2012 2010 Saint Martin 0.702 n/a [13]
2009 2008   U.S. Virgin Islands 0.894 59 [7]
2009 2008   Northern Mariana Islands 0.875 71 [7]
2009 2008   Turks and Caicos Islands 0.873 72 [7]
2009 2008   Greenland 0.869 76 [7]
2009 2008   Anguilla 0.865 79 [7]
2009 2008   Cook Islands 0.829 101 [7]
2009 2008   American Samoa 0.827 103 [7]
2009 2008   Montserrat 0.821 106 [7]
Medium human development
2012 2010   Saint Barthélemy 0.688 n/a [13]
2012 2010   Mayotte 0.653 104 [13]
2009 2008   Saint Helena 0.797 125 [7]
2009 2008   Niue 0.794 129 [7]
2009 2008   Tokelau 0.750 149 [7]

NotesEdit

  1. The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.[9]
  2. The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures (see[10]). Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.885, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP.[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. "History of the Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/reports/. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  2. "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UNDP2016.
  4. "2011 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. p. 151. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data/trends/. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  5. "The 2013 Human Development Report – "The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 144–147. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2013/. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  6. "Human Development Report 2014 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report-2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine., United Nations ESCAP, February 2009
  8. "About Kosovo". UNDP. http://www.ks.undp.org/content/kosovo/en/home/countryinfo/. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  9. "DSEC - 統計資料". www.dsec.gov.mo. http://www.dsec.gov.mo/Statistic.aspx?NodeGuid=ba1a4eab-213a-48a3-8fbb-962d15dc6f87#Pb8f074b8-4b6b-46e2-beda-69cdf02db575.
  10. "- Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Readers_reprint.pdf.
  11. "2017中華民國人類發展指數(HDI)" (in Chinese) (Excel). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C.. 2017. http://eng.stat.gov.tw/public/data/dgbas03/bs2/gender/International%20Gender/%E4%BA%BA%E9%A1%9E%E7%99%BC%E5%B1%95%E6%8C%87%E6%95%B8.xls. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
  12. Fuentes-Ramírez, Ricardo R. (2017). "Human Development Index Trends and Inequality in Puerto Rico 2010-2015" (PDF). Ceteris Paribus: Journal of Socio-Economic Research 7. https://ceterisparibusuprm.org/volumen-actual/human-development-index-trends-and-inequality-in-puerto-rico-2010-2015-by-ricardo-r-fuentes-ramirez/. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 Quel niveau de développement humain dans les outre-mer?, Agence Française de Developpment, 2012 (in French)