Gibraltar is an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. This means it shares the British King or Queen and has the protection of the British Armed Forces. It is in southwest Europe on the Mediterranean Sea. About 32,000 people live there. They are called Gibraltarians.
|Motto: "Montis Insignia Calpe" (Latin)|
"Badge of the Rock of Gibraltar"
|Anthem: "God Save the King" (official) |
"Gibraltar Anthem" (local)
|Status||British Overseas Territory|
|Government||Representative democratic parliamentary dependency under constitutional monarchy|
|Sir David Steel|
|Wendy Morton MP|
|4 August 1704|
|11 April 1713|
|10 September 1967|
• Joined the EEC
|1 January 1973[c]|
|6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
|4,328/km2 (11,209.5/sq mi) (5th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
very high · 5th
|Currency||Gibraltar pound (£)[d] (GIP)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||GI|
Gibraltar has always been important as a military base because this is where the Mediterranean Sea narrows to only 14 kilometres (9 miles) at the Strait of Gibraltar. This meant that whichever country controlled Gibraltar could see all ships that came into the Mediterranean Sea.
Gibraltar is most famous for The Rock of Gibraltar, a 426 meter high limestone rock rising out of the sea. The rock can be seen for many miles. It is home to the Barbary Apes, a type of tail-less macaque which are the only wild monkeys in Europe.
Gibraltar was named for a general who led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. It belonged to Spain between the years 1501 and 1704, and it was captured by a group of Dutch and British marines during the War of the Spanish Succession (1704). In 1713, Spain signed the Treaty of Utrecht. This treaty ended the war and said Gibraltar would be British permanently. However, according to this treaty, if the Crown of Great Britain ever wants to leave the territory, the Crown of Spain will have a prior position in order to claim the sovereignty.
Ever since then, Spain has tried to get Gibraltar back. They attacked the Rock several times in the 18th century. However, since the 1950s, Spain has tried get Gibraltar by diplomacy (international relations) by putting different kinds of pressure and restrictions on the people of Gibraltar.
Gibraltar was very important in World War II. Since it was in such a good position, it was the perfect place for the British army and navy to have its base. In World War II the people living in Gibraltar were taken to different parts of the world like Jamaica so they could be protected from the war and also leave the Rock for the soldiers. The Rock of Gibraltar was used by these soldiers, and long tunnels were made inside it. These tunnels even had a hospital and living areas for the soldiers.
In 2006 Gibraltar voted to approve a new constitution which gave full self-government to the people meaning they can independently create their own laws.
In 2006, Spain signed a deal to stop interfering with Gibraltar telephone lines, and daily flights to Madrid started.
- "National Symbols". Gibraltar.gov.gi. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Gibraltar: National anthem". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
National anthem: name: "Gibraltar Anthem" ... note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; because Gibraltar is a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" remains official (see United Kingdom)
- Gibraltar was captured on 24 July 1704 Old Style or 4 August 1704 New Style.
- The treaty was signed on 31 March 1713 Old Style or 11 April 1713 New Style (Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between France and Great Britain).
- "Census of Gibraltar" (PDF). Gibraltar.gov.gi. 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Avakov, Alexander V. (2015). Quality of Life, Balance of Power, and Nuclear Weapons (2015): A Statistical Yearbook for Statesmen and Citizens. Algora Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-62894-128-9.
- "Universal Postal Union document on Gibraltar" (PDF). Upu.int. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1990). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar. Ashford PressPub. ISBN 978-0-948466-14-4.
- QFINANCE: The Ultimate Resource. Bloomsbury Publishing. 2012-06-01. p. 1502. ISBN 978-1-84930-046-9.