Dependent territory

territory that does not possess full political independence as a sovereign state

A dependent territory or dependency is a territory that is not fully independent or sovereign, and also not fully part of a independent nation-state. However, the sovereign state has some degree of influence on the dependent territory, although some of the dependent territories are fully responsible for their internal affairs.

A dependent territory is different from a country’s subdivision in that it is not geographically part of the sovereign state nor its constituent part. A country subdivision typically represents the division of the state proper. A dependent territory often maintains some degree of political autonomy not enjoyed by a country’s administrative divisions. However, not all autonomous polities are dependencies or dependent territories, and not all dependencies are autonomous. The degree of autonomy is often highlighted by the presence of a local government elected by the local people, although such dependencies still do not have complete political independence. In this case, the constitution of the sovereign state only applies partly to the dependency or overseas territory. Interestingly, some dependencies democratically chose to reject their independence for territorial status partly because they feel economically and politically exposed if they become sovereign states. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 code.

Several terms can be used to refer to the dependencies and/or territories. These terms include overseas territories, crown dependencies, overseas possessions, unincorporated territories, and areas of special sovereignty. Crown dependencies are self-governing crown possessions, which the British government solely protects and represent at international levels. “Unincorporated” is a term used in the US to refer to territories where the US Constitution only partially applies. France refers to its semi-autonomous regions as "overseas collectivities," while the Netherlands uses the phrase "constituent countries" to refer to its territories.

There are about 58 dependencies and/or territories, most of which are islands in the world's oceans. Although the British Empire no longer exists, the United Kingdom has the most dependencies or overseas territories. It has 17 unincorporated and dependent territories, including Gibraltar and Falkland Islands, and the US also have sizeable numbers of dependencies, with some of the US known territories including Puerto Rico and Guam. However, some dependent territories and dependencies are disputed between two or more countries. For instance, Spratly Islands is claimed by China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

As an example, the Ross Dependency is a dependent territory of New Zealand, Saint Helena is a dependent territory of the United Kingdom, Queen Maud Land is a dependent territory of Norway, and the Australia-administred Antarctica is a dependent territory of Australia

Most of these dependent territories were originally colonies, which often had no autonomy.

Summary change

The article include the following:

Dependent territories change

 
Ross Dependency, an Antarctic claim
  • 1 dependency and 1 Antarctic claim are included in the listing for New Zealand
  • 1 uninhabited dependency and 2 dependency claims are included in the listing for Norway
  • 10 inhabited overseas territories, 2 overseas territories with no permanent population, 3 crown dependencies, 2 sovereign military bases and 1 Antarctic claim are included in the listing for United Kingdom
  • 5 inhabited territories and 9 islands with no permanent population are included in the number for the United States

Similar entities change

 
French Polynesia, a dependent territory of France in Oceania
  • 6 external territories and 1 Antarctic claim are included in the listing for Australia
  • 2 special administrative regions are included in the listing for China
  • 2 autonomous territories are included in the listing for Denmark
  • 1 autonomous region is included in the listing for Finland
  • 5 overseas collectivities, 1 sui generis collectivity and 2 overseas territories are included in the listing for France
  • 3 autonomous territories are included in the listing for Netherlands
  • 1 unincorporated area is included in the listing for Norway
 
Dependent territories and their sovereign states. All territories are labelled according to ISO 3166.[a] Each territory in the US Minor Outlying Islands is labelled UM-, following the first letter of its name. Coloured areas without labels are integral parts of their respective sovereign states. Antarctica is shown as a condominium instead of individual claims.

Lists of dependent territories change

This list includes all territories that have not been legally incorporated into their governing state, including several territories that are not on the list of non-self-governing territories of the General Assembly of the United Nations.[1] Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.

New Zealand change

Summary: New Zealand has one dependent territory (Tokelau) and a territorial claim in Antarctica, as well as two self-governing associated states.

In free association Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Cook Islands Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1965. Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[2] Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defense of the Cook Islands. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Cook Islands Government. The government of New Zealand does not consider the Cook Islands to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.[3] CK-
  Niue Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[2] Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defense of Niue. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Government of Niue. The government of New Zealand does not consider Niue to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.[3] NU-
Territory Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Tokelau Territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status. Another one was in October 2007, which failed to reach the ​23 margin. TK-
  Ross Dependency No permanent population. New Zealand's Antarctic claim. Unlike Tokelau and the associated states (Cook Islands and Niue), it is constitutionally part of New Zealand.[4] within AQ

Norway change

Summary: Norway has 1 dependent territory and 2 dependency claims.

Dependency Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Bouvet Island No permanent population. Dependency administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police. BV-
  Peter I Island No permanent population. Dependencies (subject to the Antarctic Treaty System) administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police. within AQ
  Queen Maud Land

United Kingdom change

Summary: the United Kingdom has 13 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel, 1 uninhabited, 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas), 3 Crown dependencies (autonomous), and 1 dependency claim.

Overseas territories (inhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Anguilla House of Assembly of Anguilla handles domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. AI-
  Bermuda Parliament of Bermuda handles domestic affairs and the territory is defined by the UK as self-governing. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. BM-
  British Indian Ocean Territory Administered by the Commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory, reporting to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Original population removed between 1967 and 1973, and presently restricted to military personnel. Also claimed by Mauritius. IO-
  British Virgin Islands House of Assembly of the British Virgin Islands handles domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories VG-
  Cayman Islands Legislative Assembly of the Cayman Islands handles domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. KY-
  Falkland Islands Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands handles domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Also claimed by Argentina. FK-
  Gibraltar Gibraltar Parliament handles domestic affairs. Almost complete internal self-government. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. GI-
  Montserrat Legislative Council of Montserrat handles domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. MS-
  Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands Island Council of the Pitcairn Islands handles some domestic affairs, however decisions are subject to approval by the Governor of the Pitcairn Islands, reporting to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. PN-
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Legislative Council of Saint Helena, Ascension Island Council and Tristan da Cunha Island Council handle domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. SH-
  Turks and Caicos Islands House of Assembly of the Turks and Caicos Islands handles some domestic affairs. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. TC-
Overseas territories (uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Administered by the Commissioner of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (who is also the Governor of the Falkland Islands), reporting to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. No permanent population. Also claimed by Argentina. GS-
  British Antarctic Territory Administered by the Commissioner of the British Antarctic Territory, reporting to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. No permanent population. The UK's Antarctic claim. within AQ
Sovereign Base Areas Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Administered by the Commander of British Forces Cyprus, reporting to the Ministry of Defence. Permanent Cypriot population, as well as British military personnel and their families. No ISO 3166 code
Crown dependencies Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Bailiwick of Guernsey Responsibility for defence, international representation, and good government rests with the United Kingdom. The Parliament of the United Kingdom can legislate on their behalf, if it deems it necessary to do so.[5][6][7] GG-
  Bailiwick of Jersey JE-
  Isle of Man IM-

United States change

Summary: the United States has 11 dependent territories and 2 dependency claims. The uninhabited Palmyra Atoll is administered similarly to some of these territories, but unlike the others is a fully incorporated part of the United States.[8]

Unincorporated organized territories
(inhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Guam Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted through Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. US-GU or

GU

  Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth in political union with the U.S.; federal funding administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. US-MP or

MP

  Puerto Rico Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S. with commonwealth status; policy relations conducted through Office of the President. US-PR or

PR

  U.S. Virgin Islands Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. US-VI or

VI

Unincorporated unorganized territories
(inhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  American Samoa Unincorporated unorganized territory administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. US-AS or

AS

Unincorporated unorganized territories
(uninhabited)[note 1]
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
  Baker Island Unincorporated unorganized territories of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. US-UM-81 or

UM-81

  Howland Island US-UM-84 or

UM-84

  Jarvis Island US-UM-86 or

UM-86

[[File:|23x15px|border |alt=|link=]] Johnston Atoll US-UM-67 or

UM-67

  Kingman Reef US-UM-89 or

UM-89

  Midway Atoll Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. No permanent population. US-UM-71 or

UM-71

  Navassa Island Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior from the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Claimed by Haiti and privately via the Guano Islands Act. US-UM-76 or

UM-76

  Wake Island Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. Claimed by the Marshall Islands. No permanent population. US-UM-79 or

UM-79

Bajo Nuevo Bank Administered by Colombia. Claimed by the U.S. (under Guano Islands Act) and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction). within CO-SAP
Serranilla Bank Administered by Colombia; site of a naval garrison. Claimed by the U.S. (since 1879 under Guano Islands Act), Honduras, and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction).

Lists of similar entities change

The following entities are according to the law of the states as well as some laws of some countries, integral parts of their states, but exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories. The list is limited to territories that have some degree of autonomy. It generally doesn't include areas without some degree of autonomy such as the overseas regions of France, the BES islands of Netherlands, Jan Mayen of Norway and Palmyra Atoll of United States. Areas with only limited degree of autonomy such as Barbuda of Antigua and Barbuda, Sabah and Marawhak of Malaysia, the autonomous regions of Portugal, Nevis of Saint Kitts and Nevis, the Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and the two autonomous cities of Spain and Zanzibar of Tanzania are also not included in this list. Antarctic claims are listed in italics.

Australia change

Summary: Australia has 6 external territories (3 autonomous and 3 uninhabited) and one Antarctic claim.

External territories (inhabited) Administration ISO 3166 code
  Christmas Island External territory. Administered by the Australian government. CX
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands External territory. Administered by the Australian government. CC
  Norfolk Island External territory. Administered by the Australian government. NF
External territories (uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands External territory. Administered by the Australian government. No permanent population. No ISO 3166 code
Template:Country data Australian Antarctic Territory External territory. Administered by the Australian government. No permanent population. within AQ
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands External territory. Administered by the Australian government. No permanent population. No ISO 3166 code
  Heard Island and McDonald Islands External territory. Administered by the Australian government. No permanent population. HM

China change

Summary: China has two special administrative regions.

Special administrative regions Administration ISO 3166 countrycode
  Hong Kong Special administrative region since 1997. Administred by the Chinese government. Although it is not part of mainland China, it is officially considered an integral part of the People's Republic of China. HK
  Macao Special administrative region since 1999. Administred by the Chinese government. Although it is not part of mainland China, it is officially considered an integral part of the People's Republic of China. MO

Denmark change

Summary: Denmark has two autonomous regions.

Autonomous region Administration ISO 3166 country code
  Faroe Islands Autonomous administrative division since 1948. Administered by the Danish Goverment. Although it is not part of metropolitan Denmark, it is officially considered an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark. FO
  Greenland Autonomous administrative division since 1979. Administered by the Danish Goverment. Although it is not part of metropolitan Denmark, it is officially considered an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark. GL

Finland change

Summary: Finland has 1 autonomous region

Autonomous region Administration ISO 3166 country code
  Åland Autonomous region. Administered by the Finnish government. AX

France change

Summary: France has 5 overseas collectivities, 1 sui generis collectivity and two overseas territories (1 autonomous, of which includes an Antarctic claim, and 1 uninhabited). By contrast, the overseas regions of France don't have any degree of autonomy, and therefore excluded from the list. Nonetheless, all of France's overseas territories are considered to be an integral part of the French Republic

Overseas collectivities Administration ISO 3166 country code
  French Polynesia Overseas territory since 2002. Overseas collectivity since 2003. Administered by the French government. PF
  Saint Barthélemy Overseas territory since 2003. Overseas collectivity since 2007. Administered by the French government. BL
  Saint Martin Overseas territory since 2003. Overseas collectivity since 2007. Administered by the French government. MF
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Overseas territory since 1960. Overseas collectivity since 1987. Administered by the French government. SP
  Wallis and Futuna Overseas territory since 1928. Overseas collectivity since 1953. Administered by the French government. WF
Sui generis collectivity Administration ISO 3166 country code.
  New Caledonia Overseas territory since 1946. sui generis collectivity since 1999. Administered by the French government. NC
Overseas territory (inhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Overseas territory since 1946. Administered by the French government. Includes an Antarctic claim (Adelié Land). TF/FR-TF
Overseas territory (uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
  Clipperton Island Overseas territory. Administered by the French government. CP

Netherlands change

Summary:Netherlands has three autonomous territories.

Autonomous territory Administration ISO 3166 country code
  Aruba Autonomous territory. Administered by the Dutch government. AW
  Curaçao Autonomous territory. Administered by the Dutch government. CW
  Sint Maarten Autonomous territory. Administered by the Dutch government. SX

Norway change

Summary:Norway has 1 unincorporated area with limited sovereignty.

Unincorporated area Administration ISO 3166 country code
  Svalbard Unincorporated area. Administered by the Norwegian government. within SJ

References change

  1. For the list, see Special Committee on Decolonization (2002). "Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations, Special Committee on Decolonization. Archived from the original on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Find a publication | New Zealand Ministry of Justice". Archived from the original on 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Conan, Neal (11 August 2015). "Pacific News Minute: Cook Islands Bid for UN Membership On Hold". Hawai'i Public Radio. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  4. New Zealand and Antarctica. NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2010
  5. CIA (2010-07-15). "Guernsey at the CIA's page". CIA. Archived from the original on 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  6. CIA (2010-07-15). "Jersey at the CIA's page". CIA. Archived from the original on 2018-12-26. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  7. CIA (2010-07-15). "The Isle of Man at the CIA's page". CIA. Archived from the original on 2018-12-26. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  8. "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations". U.S. Department of the Interior. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  1. The following three areas (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, the Ashmore and Cartier Islands and the Coral Sea Islands) don't have their own ISO 3166 code.

Notes

  1. Midway Atoll and Wake Island have a few people, but these territories are not permanently inhabited.