Hong Kong

special administrative region of China

Hong Kong (/ˌhɒŋˈkɒŋ/ (audio speaker iconlisten); Chinese: 香港, Hong Kong Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] (audio speaker iconlisten), literally "Fragrant Port"), officially The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China,[15] is one of two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of the People's Republic of China (the other is Macau). It is one of the richest and most highly developed parts in the world, and one where the cost of living is one of the highest. Hong Kong grew quickly in the decades after World War II, becoming a famous world-class financial centre. Hong Kong was one of the last territories of the British Empire until 1997, when United Kingdom handed it over to China. China then promised to grant it special status for 50 years.

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
(Hong Kong Cantonese)
Emblem of Hong Kong
City flower
Location of Hong Kong within China
Location of Hong Kong within China
StatusSpecial administrative region
Official languages
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
GovernmentDevolved executive-led parliamentary system within socialist republic
John Lee[1]
Paul Chan Mo-po
Paul Lam
Andrew Leung
Andrew Cheung
National representation
36 deputies (of 2,924)
203 delegates[4]
LegislatureLegislative Council
Autonomy within the People's Republic of China
26 January 1841
29 August 1842
18 October 1860
9 June 1898
25 December 1941
to 15 August 1945

1 July 1997
• Total
2,755[5] km2 (1,064 sq mi) (184th)
• Water (%)
59.8 (1,649 km2; 637 sq mi)[6][7]
• 2017 estimate
7,389,500[8] (100th)
• Density
6,544[3]/km2 (16,948.9/sq mi) (4th)
GDP (PPP)2016[9] estimate
• Total
$429.652 billion (44th)
• Per capita
$58,322 (11th)
GDP (nominal)2016[9] estimate
• Total
$320.668 billion (33th)
• Per capita
$43,528 (16th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 53.9[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.949[11]
very high · 4th
CurrencyHong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Hong Kong Time)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+852
ISO 3166 codeHK
Internet TLD
  1. ^ Cantonese is the de facto standard.
  2. ^ For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. English shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings.[12][13][14]

The population of Hong Kong is over seven million. The economy has rapidly grown from a trading port to a very rich city. Hong Kong has the most skyscrapers in the world.

Hong Kong is divided into 3 main parts:

Hong Kong was a British colony from 1842 to 1997 as China surrendered the city after losing the Second Opium War. After the handover in 1997, Hong Kong became under Chinese control under special status.

Hong Kong has its own constitution that is different from that of the People's Republic of China (PRC).


Hong Kong is in sub-tropical area, and has monsoon winds. It is cool and wet in winter (Jan-Mar), hot and rainy from spring through summer (Apr-Sep), and warm, sunny and dry in the autumn (Oct-Dec). The rainy season is from May until September. In summer and early autumn, there is a frequent threat of typhoons.

Population and languageEdit

The population of Hong Kong reached 7 million (7,413,070) in 2021. Most of the people in Hong Kong are Chinese. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It has an overall population density of 6,300 people per square kilometre.

Hong Kong has one of the world’s lowest birth rates — 1.05 per woman at an age of being capable to give birth as of 2019. This is far below the rate needed to replace each person, 2.1.

People from Hong Kong mainly speak Cantonese. Students are required to learn English at school. Ever since Hong Kong became a part of China, the number of people who speak Mandarin has increased because Mandarin is the official language of China.

Public holidaysEdit

In Hong Kong, 17 days of the year are public holidays:


There are coins from 10 cents to 10 Hong Kong Dollars and bank-notes (paper money bills) from $10 to $1000. One American dollar equals to HK$7.80±0.05 Hong Kong Dollars, according to the official pegged exchange rate.

Public transportEdit

  • Mass Transit Railway (MTR) which was established in 1979, owns seven lines (10 lines after KCR merger),
    • Kwun Tong Line (running between Whampoa and Tiu Keng Leng)
    • Tsuen Wan Line (running between Tsuen Wan and Central)
    • Island Line (running between Kennedy Town and Chai Wan)
    • South Island Line (running between Admiralty and South Horizons)
    • Tseung Kwan O Line (running between North Point and Po Lam/LOHAS Park)
    • Tung Chung Line (running between Tung Chung and Hong Kong)
    • Airport Express (running between AsiaWorld-Expo and Hong Kong)
    • Disneyland Resort Line (running between Sunny Bay and Disneyland Resort)
    • East Rail Line (running between Lo Wu/Lok Ma Chau and Admiralty)
    • Tuen Ma Line (running between Tuen Mun and Wu Kai Sha)
  • Bus: there are four major bus companies in Hong Kong, namely KMB which mainly serves Kowloon and New Territories, New World First Bus, which mainly serves Hong Kong Island, New Lantau Bus, which mainly serves Lantau Island, and Citybus, which mainly serves airport routes.
  • Public Light Bus: in the 1960s, it was an illegal transportation, but later on, the government noticed that if there were only buses in Hong Kong, then some villages in N.T. will not have a public transport. Therefore, the Legislative Council made it legal and under government regulation.
  • Tram (running between Kennedy Town, Happy Valley, and Shau Kei Wan)
  • Peak Tram (running between Garden Road and Victoria Peak)
  • Taxi [Red (Kowloon and Hong Kong Island), Green (New Territories), and Blue (Lantau Island)]
  • Ferry (Lots of different companies, including the Star Ferry, First Ferry and Fortune Ferry)
  • Hong Kong International Airport is the main airport. It is the busiest airport in the world in terms of cargo traffic.


Hong Kong's education system is mostly based on the English system. Children are required to be in school from age 6 until completing secondary school (high school) at age 18.


Hong Kong has 11 Universities:

Housing in Hong KongEdit

According to the International Housing Affordability survey, Hong Kong has the most unaffordable housing market in the world since 2010.[16][17]

Timeline of Hong KongEdit

Here is a brief history of Hong Kong:

Some very old rocks found in Hong Kong

Around 4000 BC

  • Sea levels rose above 100 meters

Around 3500 BC

  • Ceramic forms decorated with a wide range of patterns

Around 2000 BC

  • Bronze weapons, knives, arrowheads & tools.
  • Metal worked locally

Around 500 BC

  • Ancient Chinese writing developed

221 BC

220 BC

  • Coins from the Chinese Han period were used in Hong Kong


  • A Portuguese named Jorge Álvares was the first European to reach Hong Kong


  • China banned the drug trade in Hong Kong


  • Opium became a huge business
Opium flower


  • Lin Zexu was appointed Special Commissioner
  • The First Opium war began


January 26, 1841

  • The British flag was raised at Possession Point, on Hong Kong Island

August 1841

  • Sir Henry Pottinger became Hong Kong's first governor
  • The Treaty of Nanjing was signed, ending the First Opium War


  • China was defeated in the Second Opium War. Boundary Street and Stonecutter's Island were leased to Britain


  • The Peak Tram started operating on Hong Kong Island


  • Lantau Island and the New Territories were leased to the British for 99 years


  • Hong Kong became a refuge for exiles from China


  • Western dress began to come in fashion for the locals


  • Father Daniel Finn began excavations on Lamma Island


  • Refugees fleeing the Chinese Communist Party came to Hong Kong
Bauhinia × blakeana was adopted as the floral emblem of Hong Kong by the Urban Council in 1965.
The armorial bearings granted by the College of Arms, appointed by the British Sovereign, a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom.
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China's emblem after it was given to China since 1997. The Chinese name of Bauhinia × blakeana has also been frequently shortened as 紫荊/紫荆 (洋 yáng means "foreign" in Chinese, and this would be deemed inappropriate by the PRC government), although 紫荊/紫荆 refers to another genus called Cercis. A statue of the plant has been erected in Golden Bauhinia Square in Hong Kong. Although the flowers are bright pinkish purple in colour, they are depicted in white on the Flag of Hong Kong.

December 8, 1941

December 25, 1941

  • The British authorities surrendered Hong Kong to the Japanese Army

August 1945

  • Britain reclaimed its territory after Japan's surrender


  • Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong


  • Hong Kong became a free port


  • The Shek Kip Mei Estate was built, establishing the program of public housing


  • A Han period tomb was discovered near Lei Cheng Uk


  • The Hong Kong dollar was tied to the US dollar


  • China and Britain signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration


  • The Hong Kong Basic Law was confirmed


  • Asia's financial crisis
  • Archaeologists discovered 20 graves on the island of Ma Wa
  • Tung Chee Wa elected as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong. Voting was conducted by 400 committees of an electoral college whose members are appointed by the Chinese Government.

July 1, 1997


June 2002


  • Citizens wanted a more democratic and republican system
  • The SARS epidemic began

March 10, 2005

  • Tung Chee Hwa resigned as chief executive because of health problems.

June 16, 2005

March 2012


  • People occupied the Central region to demand universal suffrage for the next chief executive election, to take place in 2017.


  • The government voted against the universal suffrage demanded by the people.


  • There were more protests in Mong Kok because the government voted against suffrage. Police had to use pepper spray and Tear gas on the people to get them to leave.


  • Protestors in Hong Kong demonstrated against a new extradition law proposed by the central government of China.[18][19]It was the largest protest in Hong Kong's history.[20] This law would allow China to extradite people living or visiting Hong Kong.[21] People opposed this because of the poor reputation of China due to allegations of torture, forced confessions and arbitrary detentions. The bill would just bring Hong Kong closer under China's control, even though Hong Kong have their own judicial system.[22]


  • The Hong Kong National Security Law is created. This law will give Beijing, more power to control Hong Kong. Beijing also put a security office in Hong Kong. The law was created at 11 P.M. on 30 June 2020, Hong Kong Time.[23]


Hong Kong has a few media companies, notably Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB), HK Television Entertainment (HKTVE), and Fantastic Television. Access to television is not affected by Chinese regulations, such as the Great Firewall, which filters and blocks certain programs.

Places in Hong KongEdit


  1. "The dire state of female representation in the Chinese government". 10 April 2017.
  2. "Basic Law Full Text - Annex III". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Main Tables - Population by Ethnicity and Year". 2016 Population By-Census. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  4. Cheung, Tony (28 February 2017). "Who goes there? Hong Kong's participation in China's 'two sessions' explained". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  5. "CIA The World Fact Book". Archived from the original on 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2013-06-06.
  6. "Maps and Services" Survey and Mapping Office
  7. "Hong Kong Geographic Data" (PDF). Retrieved 1 Sep 2017.
  8. "Population – Overview – Census and Statistics Department".
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Hong Kong". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  10. "Thematic Report : Household Income Distribution in Hong Kong 2016" (PDF). Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  11. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  12. "Hong Kong – the Facts". GovHK. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  13. "OFFICIAL LANGUAGES DIVISION". Civil Service Bureau. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  14. "Disclaimer and Copyright Notice". Legislative Council. 27 November 2017.
  15. "Basic Law". www.basiclaw.gov.hk. Retrieved 2021-12-12.
  16. "The World's Most Unaffordable Housing Markets". FortuneBuilders. 2014-01-24. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  17. Kwan, Shawna (21 January 2019). "Hong Kong Housing Is World's Least Affordable for 9th Year". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  18. Master, Farah (21 June 2019). "Black-clad, anti-extradition protesters flood streets of Hong Kong". National Post. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  19. "HONG KONG'S PROTESTS EXPLAINED". Amnesty International. 9 September 2019.
  20. "By Using North Korea and Iran, Beijing Seeks to Divert Attention From Hong Kong Mass Protests". www.theepochtimes.com. 2019-06-18. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  21. *Euan McKirdy (June 21, 2019). "Thousands of protesters again hit Hong Kong's streets". Al Jazeera.
  22. "Hong Kong protests: Thousands surround police headquarters". BBC News. 21 June 2019. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  23. "Hong Kong security law: What is it and is it worrying?". BBC News. 2020-06-30. Retrieved 2020-11-10.

Other websitesEdit

  • "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. CIA. 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2010.