country in Southwestern Europe
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Portugal is a country in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe and part of the Mediterranean area. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. Its capital city is Lisbon. It has been a member of the European Union since 1986. Portugal was under a dictatorship between 1926 and 1974 called Estado Novo. The dictatorship of Estado Novo was ended by a peaceful revolution called Carnation Revolution. The Portuguese economy has been very good since then. However, was hit hard by the 2007-2008 recession.

Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Esta é a ditosa Pátria minha amada
("This is my blissful beloved homeland")
A Portuguesa
("The Portuguese")
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

and largest city
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.150°W / 38.767; -9.150
Official languagesPortuguese (also in national language)
Portuguese Sign Language
Recognised regional languagesMirandese[note 1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[4]
• President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Luís Montenegro
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
25 July 1139
1 December 1640
23 September 1822
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[note 3]
1 January 1986
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[5] (109th)
• Water (%)
1.2 (as of 2015)[6]
• 2021 census
Neutral decrease 10,344,802[3]
• Density
112.2[7]/km2 (290.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $406.2 billion[8] (52nd)
• Per capita
Increase $39,544[8] (58th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $271.2 billion[8] (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $26,404[8] (52nd)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 31.9[9]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.864[10]
very high · 38th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (WET)
UTC−1 (Atlantic/Azores)
• Summer (DST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)
Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Mains electricity230V - 50Hz
Driving sideRight
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ By country of citizenship
  3. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.

Portugal has a football team and won the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 and hosted the event in 2018.

It once had an empire called the Portuguese Empire, and was a powerful maritime nation from 1500s–1800s, the 10th-largest empire with a maximum land area of 10.4 million km² which included Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, East Timore, São Tomé and Príncipe, Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and even Macau in China (until 2002).

Portugal is a popular holiday destination but is sometimes overlooked in favour of larger countries like France, Spain and Italy. The Algarve region in the south and capital Lisbon are the most popular.



Three groups of islands in the Atlantic Ocean are also part of Portugal: the Azores (Açores), Madeira and the Savage Isles (Ilhas Selvagens). The Savage Isles are a small group of uninhabited islands, administered by Madeira. Portugal claims that Olivença is also part of its territory, but it is controlled by Spain.



Kingdom of Portugal


Portugal became its own kingdom in 1139 but was not officially recognized until 1143. Portugal has had links with England since the 1100s by a treaty. The border with Spain has been almost the same since the 13th century. Fishing and trading with other countries were important here.

Portugal was important in the world exploration for two reasons. Henry the Navigator, a prince from Portugal, was very interested in exploration. Inventions in navigation led to a bigger knowledge of geography.

This world exploration began the Portuguese Empire. Portugal was a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries. It tried to colonize Canada in the 16th century. However, it lost a lot of money soon after this. Portugal and Spain were in the Iberian Union from 1580 to 1640. The city of Lisbon was destroyed in an earthquake in 1755. The country was occupied during the Peninsular War. It lost its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822.

Portuguese Republic


In 1910, the Kingdom of Portugal ended and Portugal became a Republic. Eight years after Portugal’s involvement in World War One, a military group took control of the country from the Portuguese First Republic called the 28 May coup d’état. This began a time of rule by authoritarian governments called Ditadura Nacíonal that later became known as Estado Novo. During World War II Portugal remained neutral but friendly to Britain and Spain. In 1974 a peaceful left-wing army coup, called the Carnation Revolution had taken place that overthrown the military dictatorship and ended the Portuguese Colonial War. Political prisoners and oppositions of António de Oliveira Salazar were freed. The coup was an important part of Portugal’s transition to democracy and changed the way the country was ran.

The next year, Portugal allowed its colonies in Africa to be on their own sovereignty: Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe.

East Timor in Asia declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975, and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later.

Portugal went into the European Union in 1986. Another Asian colony, Macau, became part of China

The main language of Portugal is Portuguese.

Some famous Portuguese people are D. Afonso Henriques, Henry the Navigator, Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Ferdinand Magellan, Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Amália Rodrigues, Álvaro Siza Vieira, Eduardo Souto de Moura.

Luís de Camões wrote the national poem of Portugal. It is called Os Lusíadas and was written in 1572.[11]

  1. Mirandese, spoken in the region of Terra de Miranda, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. By country of citizenship
  3. Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Reconhecimento oficial de direitos linguísticos da comunidade mirandesa (Official recognition of linguistic rights of the Mirandese community)". Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa (UdL). Archived from the original on 18 March 2002. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Euromosaic study, Mirandese in Portugal, europa.eu – European Commission website. Retrieved January 2007. Link updated December 2015
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Censos 2021 - Divulgação dos Resultados Provisórios". Statistics Portugal - Web Portal. 16 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  4. Constitution of Portugal, Preamble:
  5. (in Portuguese)"Superfície Que municípios têm maior e menor área?". Pordata. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  6. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. "PORDATA - Population density, according to Census".
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects – Portugal". International Monetary Fund. 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  9. "Gini coefficient". Portugal: PORDATA. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  10. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  11. "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2013-09-02.