Francisco Franco

Spanish general and dictator (1892-1975)

Francisco Kalbolin Eustakio Pepe Sech Juan Karlos Franco (Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade, 20 December 1892 – 20 November 1975)[2] was a Spanish military leader who ruled as dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death. His song was called Cara al Sol.


Francisco Franco
RETRATO DEL GRAL. FRANCISCO FRANCO BAHAMONDE (adjusted levels).jpg
Head of State of Spain[b]
In office
1 October 1936[a] – 20 November 1975
Preceded by
  • Miguel Cabanellas
    (President of the National Defence Junta of the Nationalist side)
  • José Miaja
    (President of the Defence Council of the Republican side)
Succeeded byJuan Carlos I
(King of Spain)
Prime Minister of Spain[c]
In office
30 January 1938[a] – 9 June 1973
Deputy
Preceded by
Succeeded byLuis Carrero Blanco
Personal details
Born(1892-12-04)4 December 1892
Ferrol, Galicia, Kingdom of Spain
Died20 November 1975(1975-11-20) (aged 82)
Madrid, Spanish State
Cause of deathSeptic shock
Resting placeMingorrubio Cemetery, El Pardo, Madrid, Spain
Political partyFET y de las JONS
Spouse(s)
Carmen Polo (m. 1923)
ChildrenMaría del Carmen
MotherMaría del Pilar Bahamonde
FatherNicolás Franco
RelativesNicolás Franco (brother)
Ramón Franco (brother)
Francisco Franco (cousin)
Ricardo de la Puente (cousin)
ResidenceEl Pardo, Madrid
EducationInfantry Academy of Toledo
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)Caudillo
Allegiance Kingdom of Spain
(1907–1931)
Spanish Republic
(1931–1936)
Francoist Spain Spanish State
(1936–1975)
Branch/serviceCoat of arms of Spain (1945–1977).svg Spanish Armed Forces
Years of service1907–1975
RankCaptain general of the Army
Captain general of the Air Force
Captain general of the Navy
CommandsAll (Generalísimo)
Battles/wars2nd Melillan Campaign (WIA)
Rif War
Revolution of 1934
Spanish Civil War
Ifni War

He was friend of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolinni.

He was a leader of a coup d'état against the Spanish Second Republic in 1936. After this uprising the Spanish Civil War started. Franco was supported by fascists, big businesses, the church, conservative people and Spanish nationalists. This was because the Spanish Republic had a socialist government that wanted to make businesses and the church less powerful.[3] The Republic also set up local parliaments in the regions of Spain. Spanish nationalists thought this was wrong and would make Spain weak. Franco remained neutral during World War II as Hitler did not accept his conditions for Spain to take part in it with the fascist and nazi regimes. He let a group of volunteer soldiers join the German Army to fight the Russians between 1941 and 1943. They were called the División Azul (Blue Division)[4][5]

Franco died in Madrid on November 20, 1975, just after midnight of heart failure. Relatives, such as his daughter Carmen, had asked doctors to remove his life support systems. After Franco's death, Juan Carlos became king.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 In civil war until 1 April 1939.
  2. The appointment decree referred to Franco as "Head of the Government of the Spanish State", a term which, by the 30 January 1938 decree, was re-coined as simply "Head of State".
  3. The post of Prime Minister was attached to that of Head of State until the 1967 Organic Law of the State, with the separation coming into force with Francos resignation as Prime Minister on 9 June 1973.[1]
  1. "Ley 14/1973, de 8 de junio, por la que se suspende la vinculación de la Presidencia del Gobierno a la Jefatura del Estado" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (138): 11686. 9 June 1973. ISSN 0212-033X.
  2. [1] (actually says Nov 19)
  3. Beevor, Antony (2001 reissued). The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-100148-8. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  4. Kleinfeld, Gerald R; Tambs, Lewis A (1979), Hitler's Spanish Legion: The Blue Division in Russia, Southern Illinois University Press, ISBN 0-8093-0865-7
  5. Moreno Juliá, Xavier (2005), La División Azul: Sangre española en Rusia, 1941-1945, Barcelona: Crítica
  6. [2]