Spanish Civil War

war between the Republicans and the Nationalists in Spain from 1936 to 1939

The Spanish Civil War (18 July 1936 – 1 April 1939) was a civil war between Republicans and Nationalists. The war ended on 1 April 1939, when the last Republican troops surrendered. Francisco Franco became dictator of Spain until he died in 1975.

Spanish Civil War
Part of the Interwar period

Clockwise from top-left: members of the XI International Brigade at the Battle of Belchite; Granollers after being bombed by Nationalists aviation in 1938; Bombing of an airfield in Spanish Morocco; Republican soldiers at the siege of the Alcázar; Nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; The Lincoln Battalion
Date17 July 1936 – 1 April 1939
(2 years, 8 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)

Nationalist victory



Supported by:


Supported by:

Casualties and losses
  • 110,000 killed in action[1][2][3]
  • 100,000–130,000 civilians killed inside the Francoist zone[4]
  • 90,000 killed in action[1][2][3]
  • 50,000 civilians killed inside the Republican zone[5]
c. 500,000 total killed
General map of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).

The civil war began after a pronunciamiento (revolt) against the Republican government by the Nationalists. The nationalists were supported by FE de las JONS, a far right political party. During this time, fascist General Francisco Franco and his nationalist troops wanted to take control of the Spanish Republic. The Army split, with about half of the troops being loyal to the Republic.

Many different groups worked together to help the democratic Spanish Republic stop Franco, including Basques, Catalonians and other groups.

Foreign involvement change

Support for Republicans change

The Soviet Union, Mexico and French Third Republic sold the Republican weapons, the International Brigades was a left wing international militant group formed to fight Franco, many anti-fascist partisans internationally volunteered to fight against Franco, including people from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Germany, and Italy.

Support for Nationalists change

The governments of Nazi Germany, Kingdom of Italy and Second Portuguese Republic provided troops and supplies for Franco.

Death toll and atrocities change

location of Guernica

Around half-a-million people died in the war, and many atrocities were committed by both sides. The most famous atrocity was the bombing of Guernica. On 26 April 1937, the city was bombed by Legion Condor, a Nazi military unit working for Franco. It was the first time that an air bombing caused so many civilian casualties. The bombing was reported all over the world in newspapers and made people aware of the German involvement.

Related pages change

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. 1977 (and later editions).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Clodfelter 2017, p. 339.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Simkin, J. (2012). "Spanish Civil War". The Spanish Civil War Encyclopedia (Ser. Spanish Civil War). University of Sussex, Spartacus Educational E-Books.
  4. Manuel Álvaro Dueñas, 2009, p. 126.
  5. Casanova 1999