The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (listen)), officially the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), also referred to as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik), is the name now used for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933.
|Motto: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"|
"Unity and Justice and Freedom"
Das Lied der Deutschen
(English: "Song of the Germans")
|Capital||Berlin Weimar (de facto)|
64.1% Protestant (Lutheran, Reformed, United)
32.4% Roman Catholic
1930–33 De facto authoritarian
|Paul von Hindenburg|
• 1919 (first)
• 1933 (last)
• State Council
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|9 November 1918|
|29 March 1930|
|30 January 1933|
|27 February 1933|
|23 March 1933|
|1925||468,787 km2 (181,000 sq mi)|
After the German Empire was defeated in World War I, Germany became a republic, but it was still called "Deutsches Reich" (German Empire). Today it is called the Weimar Republic and this period is called the Weimar period, because the constitution was made in the city of Weimar.
On November 9, 1918, the Republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin and two hours later a socialist republic was proclaimed around the corner at the Berlin Castle by Karl Liebknecht.
The Weimar Republic had a lot of problems. The Treaty of Versailles made things very difficult for the economy. Inflation got completely out of hand. There were political problems because governments ruled only for a very short time, not long enough to be able to make important decisions. There were a lot of radical right and left extremists, for example monarchists (people who wanted back the monarchy) and communists, who believed that all things, especially property, land and money, should be shared. Political parties had their own militias to fight each other.
One of the paramilitary organizations that arose after World War I was the German: Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten meaning "Steel Helmet, League of Front Soldiers". They operated as the armed branch of the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP). they were placed at party gatherings in the position of armed security guards (Saalschutz). In 1935 they became part of the Nazi Party.
- Volume 6. Weimar Germany, 1918/19–1933 Population by Religious Denomination (1910–1939) Sozialgeschichtliches Arbeitsbuch, Volume III, Materialien zur Statistik des Deutschen Reiches 1914–1945, edited by Dietmar Petzina, Werner Abelshauser, and Anselm Faust. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck, 1978, p. 31. Translation: Fred Reuss.
- Thomas Adam, Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-633-7, p. 185
- "Das Deutsche Reich im Überblick". Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- "The Steel Helmet/Association of Frontline Soldiers (Germany)". CRW Flags. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- The Constitution of the German Reich (Weimar constitution) of 11th August 1919, in full text Archived 2021-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
- PSM Data Bank
- historical Documents (in German)
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