The National Socialist German Workers' Party (German ; Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), also known as the Nazi Party, was a far-right German political party. It was started in 1920 from the German Workers' Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP), which would later be renamed the NSDAP. On the day it was created, the party published its 25-point manifesto (book of ideas). The items in this list of ideas included getting rid of the Treaty of Versailles; gaining more land for the German people; taking away any income people had not earned by working; taking away Jewish people's citizenship; changing the education system; and setting up a strong central government. It is most known for being Hitler's political party.
|Leader||Anton Drexler (1920–1921)|
Adolf Hitler (1921–1945)
Martin Bormann (1945)
|Preceded by||German Workers' Party (DAP)|
|Succeeded by||None (banned)|
Ideologies continued with neo-Nazism
|Youth wing||Hitler Youth|
|Paramilitary wing||Sturmabteilung (SA)|
|Membership||Fewer than 60 in 1920|
8.5 million by 1945
|Colors||Black, white, red (Imperial Germany's colors); brown|
From 1920 until 1923, Hitler the NSDAP became to most popular in Bavaria since the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923 . In June 1934 the Nazi Party started Night of the Long Knives to kill SA leader Ernst Röhm and German Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher .
In 1919, Adolf Hitler joined the German Workers Party. In 1920 the party changed its name, and Hitler took control in 1921.
In 1923, the Nazi Party tried to start a coup d'état in Munich to take over Germany, but failed. This battle was called the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison for treason. However, he was let out of prison after nine months. Other people who participated in the Beer Hall Putsch were given the death penalty or 5-6 years imprisoned. The government also made the NSDAP illegal in Germany.
In 1924, Hitler was let out of prison early. He restarted the NSDAP. He wanted to gain power legally, through elections. At this time, the NSDAP was only one of a few extreme right-wing, nationalist political parties in Germany. There were many other parties with similar ideas then. Important people like Fritz Thyssen and Emil Kirdorf, both leaders of big industries, supported the Nazi Party.
The next elections to the Reichstag were held in 1928. In these elections, the Nazi Party won 2.6% of the vote. The party decided to decrease its anti-Semitic slogans in order to do better in the next election. Instead, the NSDAP focused more on foreign policy and on terrorising the German people. In local elections in 1929 and 1930, the NSDAP won about 10% of the vote.
In 1930, President Paul von Hindenburg dissolved the Reichstag. The Nazi Party saw this as an opportunity. In the elections on 14 September, 1930, the NSDAP won 18.3% of the vote, and had become the second biggest party in Germany.
At this time, most German people wanted to get rid of the Weimar Republic (the Weimarer Republik). Weimar was the German city where the German constitution was written after the First World War. People also wanted a stronger Germany, with more soldiers. The Treaty of Versailles had made it illegal for Germany to have some types of weapons and ships.
On January 30, 1933, Franz von Papen offered to make Adolf Hitler the Chancellor of Germany in a nationalist cabinet. He did this in secret. This was a Machtübergabe, or 'transfer of power'. However, later on, the NSDAP started to call it the Machtergreifung ('seizing power'). It was better for Nazi propaganda to say that they took power from the Weimar Republic, instead of being made the Republic's legal government.
The last free election in Weimar Germany was in March 1933. The Nazi Party won 44% of the vote. This was not a majority. After the Reichstag fire, they managed to get the two-thirds majority they needed to pass the Ermächtigungsgesetz (Enabling Act). With this new law, they dissolved parliament; gave Hitler the power to do anything he wanted; and made all political parties (except the Nazi party ) illegal.
After this, the Nazi party became very important. People had to be party members to get some jobs, or to get promoted. The Nazi party ended when Germany surrendered to the Allies on 8 May 1945, who banned the party and all other Nazi organizations.
Laws of the Nazi Party Edit
On March 23, 1933, the German Parliament passed the "Law of Rectification of the Distress of Nation and Reich" or commonly known as the "Enabling Act". Since this law required a two-thirds majority vote in parliament, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party used intimidation and persecution tactics to silence their opposition. They detained all 81 Communists and 26 out of the 120 Social Democrats in Nazi-controlled camps, effectively preventing them from participating in the voting process or expressing their opinions. Later, the only party that voted against it were the remaining Socialists. The laws were not questioned and challenged by the German judges as they viewed Hitler's government legitimate.
The "Enabling Act" then allowed Hitler to propose and sign legislation into law without the need and permission of Germany's parliament. The following are examples of laws the Nazi Party created and kept during their time of control.
- "Reich Citizenship Law" Often seen and regarded as one of the most significant and important law the Nazi Party issued, this law separated and defined who were pure German and who were Jews. According to the Reich Citizenship Laws and other related decrees, only people of that were pure German or had mixed blood could be citizens of Germany. Because of this, many Jews gave up traditional practices and Judaism. Some even started celebrating Christmas with Christians.
- "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" This law removed Jews and political opponents of the Nazis from working in jobs. People were exempt only if they had a job before August 1914, had fought in World War I, or lost a father or son in the war.
- “Law Against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities" The law stated that the maximum amount of Jewish students in any public school or university should be no more than 5 percent of the student population. They also taught students racial ideas about the superiority of “Aryans” and the inferiority of Jews.
- “Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases" This law allowed the Nazis to forcibly sterilize people with disabilities so they couldn't have children and wouldn't pass on their disabilities to future generations.
- "Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor" This law banned pure Germans from having any sexual relations between Jews or mixed bloods. These relationships were labeled as "Rassenschande" and thousands of people were sent to concentration camps because of it. It also banned marriage between Jews and Non-Jews. The law also forbade Jews from employing German maids under the age of 45.
- “Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names" This law forced Jews who didn't have "Jewish first names" to get a new identity card with their new middle names as "Israel" for males and "Sara" for females. Their documents were then labeled "J".
- “Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from Economic Life” This law banned Jews from owning a business or being involved in a trade. The Jews then had to sell their business and company to a Non-Jew employee or a Nazi Supporter for little money.
The NSDAP was dissolved on 8 May 1945. After that, the NSDAP no longer existed.
They made some reforms which still exist today. For example:
- In 1934 they decided that when two people marry, their belongings are still separate.
- When paying taxes, a person can deduct the costs of getting from home to work and back again.
- They made it harder for places that gave out loans to take goods away from people who owed them money
- In 1933, they created extensive animal welfare and protection laws - the basis of animal protection laws today.
But the Nazis did so many bad things that it is now illegal in Germany to display the swastika symbol (shown on the flag above) or use slogans such as Sieg Heil. In November 2010, a British member of the European Parliament, Godfrey Bloom, was forced to leave Parliament. This happened after he shouted the Nazi slogan 'Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer' at a German member of Parliament.
Sayings, mottos, and slogans Edit
- "Sieg Heil! Sieg Heil! Sieg Heil!"
- "Hail Victory" (a common Nazi chant at rallies)
- "Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer!"
- "One people, one country, one leader!"
- "Deutschland, erwache!"
- "Germany, Awake!" (A popular Nazi song by Dietrich Eckart. The Nazis put this slogan on many propaganda banners.)
- "Die Juden sind unser Unglück!"
- "Lang lebe unser ruhmvoller Führer!"
- "Long live our glorious leader!"
- "Heute Deutschland, morgen die Welt!"
- "Today Germany, tomorrow the world!"
- "Die Deutschen immer vor dem Ausländer und den Juden!"
- "The German always before the foreigner and the Jews!"
- "Sicher ist der Jude auch ein Mann, aber der Floh ist auch ein Tier"
- "Certainly the Jew is also a man, but the flea is also an animal"
- Rick Steves. Rick Steves' Snapshot Munich, Bavaria & Salzburg. Berkeley, California, USA; New York, New York, USA: Avalon Travel, 2010. p. 28. "Though the Nazis eventually gained power in Berlin, they remembered their roots, dubbing Munich "Capital of the Movement". The Nazi headquarters stood near today's obelisk on Brienner Strasse..."
- Davidson, Eugene (1997). The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism. University of Missouri Press. p. 241. ISBN 9780826211170.
- Orlow, Dietrich (23 June 2010). The Nazi Party 1919-1945: A Complete History. Enigma Books. p. 29. ISBN 9780982491195.
- Fritzsche 1998, p. 143,185,193,204-205,210. sfn error: no target: CITEREFFritzsche1998 (help)
- Eatwell, Roger (1997). Fascism : a history. New York: Penguin Books. pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–40, 352. ISBN 0-14-025700-4. OCLC 37930848.
- "The Nazi Party". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
- "The History Place - Rise of Hitler: Nazi Party is Formed". historyplace.com. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Nuremberg Laws". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2023-08-29.
- "Law Limits Jews in Public Schools". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2023-08-29.
- "Law on Alteration of Family and Personal Names". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2023-08-29.
- "Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2023-08-29.
- "Ukip MEP ejected for 'Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer' jibe". guardian.co.uk. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Global Politician - Soros, Europeans: Die Juden sind Unser Unglück!". globalpolitician.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
Other websites Edit
- Nazi Party - Citizendium