The Sturmabteilung (listen (help·info); often shortened to SA) was a paramilitary group for the German Nazi Party. Their leader was Ernst Röhm. The group was important in helping Adolf Hitler gain power in the 1930s.
Adolf Hitler and Ernst Röhm inspecting the SA
in Nuremberg in 1933
|Dissolved||May 8, 1945|
|Headquarters||SA High Command, Barerstraße, Munich|
48°8′37.53″N 11°34′6.76″E / 48.1437583°N 11.5685444°E
|Parent agency||Nazi Party (NSDAP)|
In English, they are often called the Stormtroopers or the Brownshirts, while Sturmabteilung literally translates to “assault detachment” or “assault section”. They wore a brown uniform, similar to the black uniform worn by Mussolini's Blackshirts.
The word Sturmabteilung was used before the founding of the Nazi Party in 1919. It originally comes from the specialized assault troops used by Germany in World War I using Hutier infiltration tactics.
The SA played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s. Other political parties also had their own partisan militia, and the SA fought them. The SS began as a small part of SA, and later replaced them.
The Army and other conservatives disliked the SA. In 1934 Hitler launched the Night of the Long Knives in which the Schutzstaffel arrested and killed their leaders.
- The night of long knives Archived 2004-10-12 at the Wayback Machine