Kingdom of Portugal

kingdom in Southwestern Europe (1139–1910)

38°42′N 9°11′W / 38.700°N 9.183°W / 38.700; -9.183

The Kingdom of Portugal (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the western part of Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the modern Portuguese Republic.

Kingdom of Portugal[a]
Regnum Portugalliae (Latin)
Reino de Portugal (Portuguese)
Coat of arms (1834–1910)
Anthem: "Hymno Patriótico" (1809–1834)
"Patriotic Anthem"

Hino da Carta (1834–1910)
"Anthem of the Charter"
The Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
The Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
CapitalLisbon (1255-1808; 1821-1910)
Common languagesOfficial languages:
Roman Catholicism (official)
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
(1139–1822; 1823–1826; 1828–1834)
Constitutional monarchy
(1822–1823; 1826–1828; 1834–1910)
• 1139–1185 (first)
Afonso I
• 1908–1910 (last)
Manuel II
Prime Minister 
• 1834–1835 (first)
Pedro de Sousa Holstein
• 1910 (last)
António Teixeira de Sousa
LegislatureCortes Gerais
• Upper house
Chamber of Peers
• Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
• Battle of Ourique
25 July 1139
• Portuguese Restoration War
1 December 1640
• Lisbon Regicide
1 February 1908
5 October 1910
1300[1]90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi)
• 1300[1]
CurrencyPortuguese real
ISO 3166 codePT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Portugal
Couto Misto
Portuguese Republic
Empire of Brazil

The predecessor of the Kingdom of Portugal was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.

History change

During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain. After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to halt its expansion due to the 1890 British Ultimatum, eventually leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.

Portugal was an absolute monarchy before 1822. It alternated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a constitutional monarchy after 1834.

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 Reilly, Bernard F. (1993). The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780521397414. Retrieved 11 October 2019. The new kingdom of Castile had roughly tripled in size to some 335,000 square kilometers by 1300 [...] Portugal swollen to 90,000 square kilometers and perhaps 800,000 inhabitants [...]
  1. also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbiae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves) after 1415, and as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves) between 1815 and 1822.
  2. Galician-Portuguese (until 16th century)
    Modern Portuguese (16th century onward)
  3. Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. Medieval Latin replaced by Renaissance Latin by the 15th century.