Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal[a]
|Anthem: "Hymno Patriótico" (1809–1834)|
Hino da Carta (1834–1910)
"Anthem of the Charter"
|Capital||Lisbon (1255-1808; 1821-1910)|
|Common languages||Official languages:|
|Religion||Roman Catholicism (official)|
(1139–1822; 1823–1826; 1828–1834)
(1822–1823; 1826–1828; 1834–1910)
• 1139–1185 (first)
• 1908–1910 (last)
• 1834–1835 (first)
|Pedro de Sousa Holstein|
• 1910 (last)
|António Teixeira de Sousa|
• Upper house
|Chamber of Peers|
• Lower house
|Chamber of Deputies|
• Battle of Ourique
|25 July 1139|
• Portuguese Restoration War
|1 December 1640|
• Lisbon Regicide
|1 February 1908|
|5 October 1910|
|1300||90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||PT|
The predecessor of the Kingdom of Portugal was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.
During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain. After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to halt its expansion due to the 1890 British Ultimatum, eventually leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.
- Reilly, Bernard F. (1993). The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780521397414. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
The new kingdom of Castile had roughly tripled in size to some 335,000 square kilometers by 1300 [...] Portugal swollen to 90,000 square kilometers and perhaps 800,000 inhabitants [...]
- also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbiae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves) after 1415, and as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves) between 1815 and 1822.
- Galician-Portuguese (until 16th century)
Modern Portuguese (16th century onward)
- Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. Medieval Latin replaced by Renaissance Latin by the 15th century.