Scramble for Africa

invasion and occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers

The Scramble for Africa, also called the Race for Africa was a time in history when there was a large amount of colonial expansion in Africa. It lasted from the 1880s until the start of World War I. Many European countries started colonies in Africa during this time. This is an example of New Imperialism. The last half of the 19th century saw a change in the way countries controlled their colonies. They changed from economic control through mass settlement, to political and military control of the colony's resources This was seen in the fight for the areas that were controlled by European nations.

Many people became famous for helping European countries find more land in Africa, These people included the explorers David Livingston, Henry Morton Stanley, and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza as well as the French politician Jules Ferry.

The Berlin Conference (1884 - 1885) tried to end disputes between the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic, the German Empire, and other European countries. They agreed that "effective occupation" would be the rule for colonial claims. Laws were made for using direct rule on a colony, backed up by military power.

Other readingEdit

  • Maria Petringa, Brazza, A Life for Africa (2006) ISBN 9781-4259-11980