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Jamaica

country in the Caribbean

Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean; it is part of the Greater Antilles. The island, 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola. Its capital is Kingston; other towns include Montego Bay, St. Ann's Bay and Spanish Town. The island is divided into three counties – Cornwall, Middlesex and Surrey – which are subdivided into 14 parishes: Kingston, St. Andrew, St. Catherine, Clarendon,Manchester, St. Elizabeth, Westmoreland, Hanover, St. James, Trelawny, St. Ann, St. Mary, Portland and St. Thomas.

Jamaica
Coat of arms of Jamaica
Coat of arms
Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Location of Jamaica
Capital
and largest city
Kingston
17°59′N 76°48′W / 17.983°N 76.800°W / 17.983; -76.800
Official languages English
National language Jamaican Patois (de facto)
Ethnic groups (2011[1])
Religion
[2]
Demonym Jamaican
Government Unitary parliamentary representative democracy under constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Patrick Allen
Andrew Holness
Legislature Parliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Granted
6 August 1962
Area
• Total
10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi) (160th)
• Water (%)
1.5
Population
• 2016 estimate
2,881,355[3] (139th)
• Density
268/km2 (694.1/sq mi) (49th)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$26.446 billion[4] (2017)
• Per capita
$9,297[4]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$14.556 billion[4]
• Per capita
$5,117[4]
Gini (2004) 45.5[5]
medium · 84th[6]
HDI (2014) Increase 0.719[7]
high · 99th
Currency Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zone (UTC-5)
Drives on the left
Calling code +1-876
+1-658 (Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)
ISO 3166 code JM
Internet TLD .jm

Jamaica is the third-largest island country in the Greater Antilles. Its Taíno name was Xaymaca, meaning "Land of Springs".[8]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Taino indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC.[9] When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques (chiefs of villages). The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour.[9]

Christopher Columbus, during his second voyage to the Americas, claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there on 5 May 1494 and his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, now called Discovery Bay. There is some debate as to whether he landed in St. Ann's Bay or in Discovery Bay. St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.[10]

In 1503, during his fourth voyage, Columbus had to spend one year on the northern coast of the island, and he named the island Isla de Santiago (by Sant Iago Apostol, in Spanish Santiago).

In 1509, the new Governor of the Hispaniola, Diego Columbus, sent Juan de Esquivel, a Conquistador born in Seville, Spain, with 70 men to Jamaica to complete the conquest of that island. They first lived in the St. Ann's Bay area and soon Esquivel founded a town, Sevilla La Nueva (in English, "The New Seville") on the north coast, one mile to the west of St. Ann's Bay.[11]

Sevilla was abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy.[10] The capital was moved to Spanish Town, then called Saint Jago de la Vega, in the south around 1534.[12]

British ruleEdit

In 1654 Oliver Cromwell decided to break the Spanish control of the West Indies and he sent a fleet in an expedition) led by William Penn and General Robert Venables. The fleet arrived to the Santo Domingo island on 13 April 1655 but the British lost in two battles on 17 and 25 April and they decided to move to Jamaica.[13]

On 10 May 1655, Penn and Venables led a successful attack on Jamaica. The Spanish surrendered to the English, freed their slaves and then fled to Cuba. It was this set of freed slaves and their descendants living in the Jamaican mountains who became known as the Maroons.[11]

IndependenceEdit

After a long period of direct British colonial rule, Jamaica gained a degree of local political control in the late 1930s, and held its first election under full universal adult suffrage in 1944. Jamaica joined nine other U.K. territories in the West Indies Federation in 1958 but withdrew after Jamaican voters rejected membership in 1961. Jamaica got its independence in 1962, remaining a member of the Commonwealth.[14]

Government and politicsEdit

Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II serving as the monarch.[15] However, as Elizabeth II is shared as head of state of fifteen other countries (the Commonwealth realm) in addition to the United Kingdom[16] and resides mostly in the United Kingdom, she is thus often represented as Queen of Jamaica in Jamaica and abroad by the Governor-General of Jamaica.[17] The governor-general is nominated by the Prime Minister of Jamaica and appointed by the monarch. All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles.

 
Former Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller walks to Parliament while her team follows.

The Parliament of Jamaica is bicameral. This means that it consists of two Houses, the Senate, also called the Upper House, and the House of Representatives, also known as the Lower House. The members of the House (known as Members of Parliament or MPs) are elected by the people of Jamaica. The leader of the political party with most members in the House of Representatives is appointed by the governor-general to be the prime minister. Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general.[18]

Tarch 2016. Prime Minister Holness acts as head of government of Jamaica.

Jamaica has traditionally had a system of two parties, with power often alternating between the People's National Party and Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). The party with current administrative and legislative power is Jamaica Labour Party, with a two-thirds Parliamentary majority as of 2016.

ParishesEdit

Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes, which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative relevance.

Cornwall County Capital km2 Middlesex County Capital km2 Surrey County Capital km2
1 Hanover Lucea   453 6 Clarendon May Pen 1,196 11 Kingston Kingston 25
2 Saint Elizabeth Black River 1,212 7 Manchester Mandeville    830 12 Portland Port Antonio 814
3 Saint James Montego Bay   595 8 Saint Ann St. Ann's Bay 1,213 13 Saint Andrew Half Way Tree 453
4 Trelawny Falmouth   879 9 Saint Catherine Spanish Town 1,192 19 Saint Thomas Morant Bay 743
5 Westmoreland Savanna-la-Mar   807 10 Saint Mary Port Maria    611

PopulationEdit

DemographicsEdit

In 2011 (last national census), there were 2,697,983 people living in Jamaica: 1,334,533 men and 1,363,450 women. There were 1,453,438 (53.9%) living in towns and cities. The population density was 245.5 persons/km².[19]

The following table shows the parishes with their populations in the 2011 census.[19]

Parish Total
population
Urban
population
Rural
population
Kingston 89,057 89,057 -
Saint Andrew 573,369 495,771 77,598
Saint Thomas 93,902 26,907 66,995
Portland 81,744 19,509 62,235
Saint Mary 113,615 27,533 86,082
Saint Ann 172,362 49,812 122,550
Saint James 183,811 110,207 73,604
Hanover 69,533 7,282 62,251
Westmoreland 144,103 39,591 104,512
Saint Elizabeth 150,205 22,585 127,620
Manchester 189,797 66,390 123,407
Trelawny 75,164 14,378 60,786
Clarendon 245,103 85,861 159,242
Saint Catherine 516,218 398,555 117,663
Jamaica 2,697,983 1,453,438 1,244,545

LanguageEdit

The official language of Jamaica is English and the population also speaks Jamaican Creole English.[20]

ReligionEdit

The people of Jamaica is 62.5% Protestant (10.8% Seventh-day Adventist Church, 9.5% Pentecostal, 8.3 Other Church of God, 7.2% Baptist, 6.3% New Testament Church of God, 4.8% Church of God in Jamaica, 4.3% Church of God of Prophecy, 3.6% Anglicans, 7.7% other Christian), 2.6% Catholics, 14.2% other or unspecified, 20.9% none.[21]

GeographyEdit

 
Topographic map of Jamaica

Jamaica is between latitudes 17° 42"N and 18° 31"N and longitudes 78° 22"W and 76° 11", that is between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. It has an area of 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi).[21]

Jamaica is the third-largest island country in the Greater Antilles, after Cuba and the Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic); it is larger than Puerto Rico. The island is 235 kilometres (146 mi) from east to west; the width, from north to south, varies between 35 kilometres (22 mi) to 82 kilometres (51 mi). The country is composed mainly of the mainland, but near the coast there are a few isolated small islands.[22]

The Blue Mountains are the longest mountain range in Jamaica. They include the island's highest point, Blue Mountain Peak, at 2,256 metres (7,402 ft).[22]

RiversEdit

The Rio Minho is the longest river in Jamaica at 92.8 kilometres (57.7 mi).[23] It rises close to the island's geographic centre, flows generally south-southwest and reaches the Caribbean Sea at Carlisle Bay in the central south coast, to the west of the island's southernmost point, Portland Point.

The Black River is one of the longest rivers in Jamaica. At a length of 53.4 km (33.2 mi), it was believed to be the longest until it was discovered that the Rio Minho was longer. It was originally called Rio Caobana.[23]

Famous peopleEdit

The island is known for the Rastafarian movement, as well as reggae artist Bob Marley. The popular sprinter Usain Bolt is also an asset from the country. Usain Bolt won gold in the 100 and 200 races in Rio 2016.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WorldFactbook. ().
  2. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-25. 
  3. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Jamaica". International Monetary Fund. 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  5. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  6. "Country Comparison: Distribution 0f Family Income – Gini Index". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  7. "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  8. "Taíno Dictionary" (in Spanish). The United Confederation of Taíno People. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Glenn Woodley (1 April 2001). "The Taino of Jamaica (Jamaica)". Jamaicans.com. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Jamaica History: Columbian/Spanish". Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Government of Jamaica - History of Jamaica". Jamaica Information Service. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  12. "Spanish Town". Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  13. William Penn: Narrative of the Expedition to San Domingo.
  14. "Jamaica". Encyclopedia of Earth. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 17 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  15. "Queen and Jamaica". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  16. "The Queen and the Commonwealth". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  17. "The role of the Governor-General in Jamaica". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  18. "About Government". Jamaica Information Service. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  19. 19.0 19.1 "2011 Census of Population & Housing" (pdf). Statistical Institute of Jamaica. Retrieved 15 April 1913.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  20. "Jamaica". Ethnologue. 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cia. ().
  22. 22.0 22.1 Geography Caribbean Islands: A Country Study. Library of Congress, 1987
  23. 23.0 23.1 Jamaica National Heritage Trust – Black River

Other websitesEdit