island sovereign state off the coast of Southeast Africa, in the Indian Ocean

Madagascar is a large island nation in the Indian Ocean. It is off of the east coast of Africa. Twenty-two million people live there; its capital is Antananarivo. It is the world's fourth largest island.[10]

Republic of Madagascar
  • Repoblikan'i Madagasikara  (Malagasy)
  • République de Madagascar  (French)
  • "Fitiavana, Tanindrazana, Fandrosoana" (Malagasy)
  • "Amour, Patrie, Progrès" (French)
  • "Love, Land of Our Ancestors, Progress"[1]
Anthem: Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!
Oh, Beloved Land of our Ancestors!
Location of  Madagascar  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of  Madagascar  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

and largest city
18°55′S 47°31′E / 18.917°S 47.517°E / -18.917; 47.517
Official languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Andry Rajoelina
Christian Ntsay
National Assembly
• from France
26 June 1960
17 November 2010
• Total
587,041 km2 (226,658 sq mi) (46th)
• Water
5,501 km2 (2,124 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
24,894,551[5] (52nd)
• 1993 census
• Density
35.2/km2 (91.2/sq mi) (174th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$40.055 billion[6]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$10.372 billion[6]
• Per capita
Gini (2010)44.1[7]
HDI (2015)Increase 0.512[8]
low · 158th
CurrencyMalagasy ariary (MGA)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed[9])
Driving sideright
Calling code+261[9]
ISO 3166 codeMG

The official languages are Malagasy and French.

Geologists think that about two million years ago, Madagascar was a part of a big landmass that included what is now the continent of Africa, but it broke off. Madagascar would later break off of the Indian subcontinent.[11]


Madagascar is home to many species that were not known about until around 1679 when Dutch explorers went there. They do not even exist elsewhere in Africa. They only exist in Madagascar. In fact, most of the mammals living in Madagascar do not live anywhere else in the world.[12] However, many of the species in Madagascar are in danger because many of the forests have been cut down.[13] A big reason that forests have been cut down is so that land can be used to grow crops such as coffee, which is one of the most important crops that is grown in Madagascar.


Agriculture is a big part of the economy in Madagascar, including the growing of coffee and vanilla. Madagascar sells more vanilla than any other country in the world.[14] Madagascar also makes money from tourism.[15]


Map of the Regions of Madagascar and former provinces of Madagascar

In 2004 Madagascar was divided into 22 regions. It used to be divided into 6 provinces.[16]

Regions and former provinces[17]
New regions Former provinces Population 2004 estimate
Diana (1), Sava (2) Antsiranana 1,291,100
Itasy (3), Analamanga (4), Vakinankaratra (5), Bongolava (6)
Sofia (7), Boeny (8), Betsiboka (9), Melaky (10) Mahajanga 1,896,000
Alaotra Mangoro (11), Atsinanana (12), Analanjirofo (13) Toamasina 2,855,600
Amoron'i Mania (14), Haute-Matsiatra (15), Vatovavy-Fitovinany (16), Atsimo-Atsinanana (17), Ihorombe (18)
Fianarantsoa 3,730,200
Menabe (19), Atsimo-Andrefana (20), Androy (21), Anosy (22) Toliara 2,430,100



People have probably lived in Madagascar for at least 2000 years.[18]

France took over the city of Antananarivo in 1895, and added Madagascar as a colony two years later.[19] Madagascar became independent from France, which meant it became its own country, on 26 June, 1960. On March 17, 2009, President Marc Ravalomanana quit because of pressure from the military. Andry Raejolina became the next president.[20]

Related pagesEdit


  1. Le Comité Consultatif Constitutionnel (1 October 2010). "Projet de Constitution de la Quatrième République de Madagascar" (PDF) (in French). Madagascar Tribune. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  2. "MADAGASCAR: general data". Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  3. "Demonyms – Names of Nationalities". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  4. Template:Malagasy – National Geographic Style Manual
  5. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Madagascar". International Monetary Fund.
  7. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  8. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Bradt (2011), p. 2.
  10. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Madagascar". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  11. "Giant palm tree puzzles botanists". Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  12. "Dark history of Madagascar - Times Online". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  13. "Deforestation In Madagascar". Archived from the original on June 6, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  14. Saholiarisoa, Sanja. "Reuters AlertNet - Cyclones, politics to hurt Madagascar vanilla". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  15. "Economy of Madagascar". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  16. Deschamps (1965), pp. 268, 274.
  17. Ralison, Eliane; Goossens, Frans (January 2006), "Madagascar: profile des marches pour les evaluations d'urgence de la securite alimentaire", in World Food Programme (ed.), Archived copy (PDF), Strengthening Emergency Needs Assessment Capacity (in French), Rome, Italy: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, p. 3, archived (PDF) from the original on January 16, 2012, retrieved January 14, 2012CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. "Dark history of Madagascar - Times Online". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  19. "History of Madagascar - Lonely Planet Travel Information". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  20. "Madagascar president Marc Ravalomanana resigns". Retrieved May 6, 2010.

Other websitesEdit