Romania (old spelling: Rumania, Roumania; Romanian: România, IPA: [ro.mɨˈni.a]) is a country in southeastern Europe. It is north of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube River. Part of Romania is circled by the Carpathian Mountains. It also has a border on the Black Sea. Most of the Danube Delta is found inside Romania. Romania shares borders with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine to the far northeast, the Republic of Moldova to the near northeast, and Bulgaria to the south.
Anthem: Deşteaptă-te, române!
Awaken thee, Romanian!
|Ethnic languages||Hungarian |
|Ethnic groups |
2% other minorities
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Titus Corlățean (Acting)|
|Chamber of Deputies|
• Little Union1
|January 24, 1859|
• Great Union3
|December 1, 1918|
|238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi) (83rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2011 census
|79/km2 (204.6/sq mi) (104th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|$481.453 billion (46th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|$206.319 billion (48th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.781|
high · 47th
|Currency||Romanian leu4 (RON)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||RO|
1 The Little Union refers to the double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Wallachia and Moldavia (January 5, respectively January 24, 1859).
2 Independence proclaimed on May 9, 1877, internationally recognized in 1878.
3 The Great Union was the union of Romania with Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania in 1918 and the creation of Greater Romania.
4 The leu was redenominated on July 1, 2005. As of that date 10,000 (old) lei (ROL) = 1 (new) leu (RON).
5 The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.
Romania is a semi-presidential unitary state. It was created when Moldavia and Wallachia joined together in 1859. It was given its independence in the Treaty of Berlin of 1878. At the end of World War II, some of its land (close by what is now known as Moldova) was occupied by the USSR. After the Iron Curtain fell in 1989 Romania was liberated from the communist regime. During the 2000s, Romania made changes to the country, such as reform the democratic system, human rights acts, freedom of speech acts, economy and law. That let Romania join the European Union on January 1, 2007.
Romania has the 9th biggest area of land and the 7th biggest population (with 19 million people) of the European Union member states. The capital and biggest city in Romania is Bucharest (Romanian: București ), with a population of 1.6 million. One of the cities in Transylvania, Sibiu, was named a European Capital of Culture. Romania joined NATO on March 29, 2004.
The word Romania (Rumania or România) comes from the Romanian word Român, which comes from the Latin word Romanus which means "Roman". English texts still used the word Rumania during World War II. This came from the French word Roumanie.
Prehistory and the RomansEdit
Some of the oldest human remains found in Europe were discovered in Romania. They were about 42,000 years old. This may have been when the first Homo sapiens came to Europe. The world's first and oldest writing comes from people who lived in today's Romania. Approximately 5300 years BC. According to archaeology it is not a matter of symbols, but the world's first writings. It belonged to the Vinča culture which inhabited all of today's Serbia with over 150 Vinča sites and minor parts of Western Romania, northwestern Bulgaria, eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina and Southeastern Hungary.
Herodotus in the fourth book of The Histories, written in about 440 BC/BCE. Herodotus wrote that the Getae were defeated by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great when he battled the Scythians. The Getae were called the Dacians by the Romans. They were Thracians who were living in Dacia, which is where Romania, Moldova and the northern part of Bulgaria are now. The Dacians attacked the Roman province, the border of which was formed by the Danube, in 87 AD/CE. This was during Emperor Domitian's rule. The Dacians were defeated by the Roman Empire under Emperor Trajan in two battles that lasted from 101 AD/CE until 106 AD/CE. The Roman Empire made Dacia into the province of Roman Dacia.
A lot of ore, such as gold and silver, were found in Roman Dacia. A lot of gold and silver were found in the Western Carpathians. Trajan went back to Rome with 165 tons (330,000 pounds) of gold and 330 tons (660,000 pounds) of silver after his conquest.
There were many Romans living in the province of Roman Dacia. They spoke Vulgar Latin. They began to write the local languages using the Latin alphabet. Writing languages with the Latin alphabet is called romanization. This became the first version of Romanian.
In the 3rd century, the province was attacked by groups of nomadic people like the Goths. They made the Roman Empire leave Dacia about 271 AD/CE. This became the Roman Empire's first abandoned province.
The origin of modern Romanians is widely talked about by historians to this day. It is thought that the Romanians were formed from large ethnic groups that came from both the south and north parts of the Danube.
Dark Ages and Middle AgesEdit
Ancient Rome's flag
From 271 to 275, the Goths took over the abandoned Roman province. They lived in Dacia until the 4th century, when another group of wandering peoples, the Huns, came to Dacia. The Gepids, Avars, with the Slavic people, were in control of Transylvania through the 8th century. In the 8th century, however, the country was taken over by the Hungarian Empire. It was made part of the First Bulgarian Empire, which ended Romania's Dark Ages.
In 1310, now called the High Middle Ages, Basarab I started the Romanian principality of Wallachia. Moldavia was begun by Dragoş around 1352. During the Middle Ages, Romanians were living in three different areas: Wallachia (Romanian: Ţara Românească—"Romanian Land"), Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova), and Transylvania.
Transylvania belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary from around the 10th century until the 16th century, when it turned into the Principality of Transylvania. This lasted until 1711. Wallachia had been on the border of the Ottoman Empire since the 14th century. As the Ottoman Empire's influence grew, it gradually fell under the suzerainty (control) of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.
The best known ruler of this period was Vlad III the Impaler, also known as Vlad Dracula, or Vlad Ţepeş, IPA: ['tsepeʃ], Prince of Wallachia, during the years of 1448, 1456–62, and 1476. While he was the leader of his people, he had an agreement with the Ottoman Empire to stay independent. Many people in Romania during this time thought of him as a ruler with a great sense of justice and defense for his country.
Moldavia was at its greatest when Stephen the Great was ruling between 1457 and 1504. He was a great military leader, winning 47 battles and losing only 2. After every battle he won, Stephen would build a church. Because he won 47 of the battles that he fought, he ended up building 48 churches. After Stephen the Great's death, Moldavia came under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century.
Independence and monarchyEdit
When Transylvania was the organic part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire was in control of Wallachia and Moldavia, almost all of the Romanians had limited rights as a citizen. They stayed this way even when they made up most of the people in those areas.
After Wallachian Revolution of 1821 as in the 1830s was addressed nationalists thoughts and feelings into Romania and became called "National awakening of Romania'"'. Even then adopted a 3-colored flag, blue-yellow-red, which was later to become a Flag of Romania.
The people who voted in 1859 in Moldavia and Wallachia picked the same person – Alexandru Ioan Cuza – to be the prince in those areas. He managed to unite the people and nationalism was seen as a useful method.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza walked with cautious steps he was not proclaiming a declaration of independence immediately because he knew it would bring a new war. Instead he let Moldavia and Wallachia merged in the United Principalities of the Ottoman Empire and increasing self-government to a greater degree.
The new union was at the front of today's Romania. With cautious steps we freed itself more and Bucharest was established as the capital. However, farmers had more land when serfdom was abolished, which led to a coup d'état against the Alexandru Ioan Cuza staged by peasants who overthrew the regime.
Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen became the new leader, and was later called Prince Carol I of Romania. While the Russo-Turkish War was happening, Romania battled on the Russian side. When the Treaty of Berlin of 1878 was signed, the Great Powers made Romania an independent state. In return, they had to give Russia three of their southern districts of Bessarabia. In 1881, the principality became a kingdom, with Prince Carol ruling as King Carol I.
The World Wars and the Great LeadersEdit
World War IEdit
When World War I started in August of 1914, Romania said it was a neutral country. In 1916, the Allies promised to give Romania parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire where many Romanians lived, if Romania started a war against Austria-Hungary.
The Romanian military campaign ended in disaster after Romania's forces were stopped in 1917. Many died. Moldova was one of the few parts of Romania that was not captured when it stopped its attackers in 1917. The Allies won the war, Austria-Hungary had been weakened, and an independent Hungarian republic was proclaimed. As promised, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of Romania in 1918. After the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, Hungary, as agreed, gave up the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania. Romania and Bukovina were joined together in 1919 as a result of the Treaty of Saint Germain. Bessarabia joined with Romania in 1920 when the Treaty of Paris was signed.
After World War I was much bigger and more nationalist. The small Kingdom received ("major Transylvania"). The principalities Wallachia, Moldavia and Bessarabia (Moldova) together formed the "Greater Romania" 1918-1940. "Greater Romania" did not survive World War II.
Romanians called their country România Mare, meaning Great Romania or Greater Romania, in the time between World War I and World War II. They called it so because it controlled 300,000 square kilometres (115,831 sq mi) of land.
The Great Depression meant social unrest, high unemployment, strikes and riots, especially a miners' strike in 1929 in Valea Jiului and a strike in Griviţas maintenance workshops. By the mid-1930s, with a recovering Romanian economy, industry grew, although about 80% of Romanians still were engaged in agriculture.
In end of 1930s, Romania's liberal democracy was slowly being replaced by the fascist dictatorship. The Archangel Michael Legion, known as the Iron Guard organization, was led by Corneliu Codreanu Zelea. In 1937 elections the party supported Adolf Hitler and Nazism and got 15.5% of the votes and became the third biggest party. In 1938 king Carol II of Romania seized power over Romania. He dissolved all political parties and executed Corneliu Codreanu Zelea along with 12 other leaders.
World War IIEdit
"Death" in Iasi
Carol II of Romania declared the country as neutral when World War II broke out in 1939, but included since the Soviet Union occupied Bessarabia and northern Bukovina an alliance with Hitler's Germany. This occurred after field marshal Ion Antonescu forced the authoritarian Carol II of Romania to abdicate. Antonescu appointed himself "conducator", Romania's dictator, and signed at the November 23 of 1940 three-powers pact with Nazi Germany. Hitler's Germany was dependent on a continuous importation of fuel and crude oil from the Romanian oil fields of Ploesti. In 1940, yjr Kingdom of Hungary took over the legitimate domination in Northern Transylvania to the end of the World War II.
The country's troops fought together with the German Wehrmacht against the Soviet Union. In summer of 1941, Romania join Hitler's war against the Soviet Union in combination also Finland, Slovakia and Hungary join Hitlers war. Romania built concentration camps and began conducting a massive persecution of Jews, of which became very extreme in the city of Iasi.
Holocaust in RomaniaEdit
Romania participated in the Holocaust. The author of the book "The Destruction of the European Jews" Raul Hilberg writes follow: "There was / ... / moment when the Germans actually had to intervene and slow the speed with which the Romanian measures were taken." The hunt for Jews in eastern Romania (including Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transnistria and the city of Iasi) had more the character of pogroms than the German, well-organized camps and transport.
There were pogroms in the city of Iasi. The homes for the Jewish minority in Iasi were marked with crosses. On June 27, 1941, Ion Antonescu make a phone call with the city's mayor and Antonescu said into the phone: "clean the city Iasi from the Jews." And the Holocaust in Romania has began. Police officers and many civilians went to every Jewish home marked with a cross in the town and murdered thousands of Jews on the same day.
In June 1941, the Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu gave an "illegal secret order" to the special police force. He ordered the police in cooperation with the Romanian Army and the German SS troops to kill all Jews in east Romania within the next coming years. The Jews living on the countryside was being killed right on the spot. The Jews in the cities were first collected in the ghettos and later deported away.
On October 22, 1941 the Soviet union with bombs blow up the Romanian military headquarters in Odessa, and killed 66 Romanian soldiers. As revenge Ion Antonescu decided that for every dead Romanian officer, 200 Soviet communists must be killed and for each dead soldier, 100 communists must be killed. All other Communists were imprisoned and Jewish families were taken hostage in the hope that the partisan movement would cease its operations.
The day after in Bucharest, on October 23, 1941, around 5 000 people and the majority were Jews was arrested who later executed by hanging. In the Soviet village Dalnik, almost 20,000 Jews were incarcerated in to several locked buildings and burned alive.
After the massacre, many of the Jews who remained in Odessa were sent to various concentration camps. Nearby Odessa on October 25, 1941, approximately 40,000 Jews, was gathering together on a special closed military secured area, and the Jews had to stay outdoors for more than ten days without food or supply. Many died of cold and starvation. The survivors were murdered one month later.
End of warEdit
At the end of 1943, the Red Army liberated most of Soviet territory and started advancing westward from its borders to defeat Nazi Germany and its allies. It was in this context that the Soviet forces crossed Romania. If the Soviet Union could hit Romania, Nazi Germany's last hope is gone, said the military leadership of the Red Army. Russians deposited the entire 1.5 million soldiers in the attack against Romania and Romania last reserves consisting only of 138 000 soldiers. During the summer of 1944 it began the attack on Bessarabia (Moldova) and the Romanian army fled the area. On 2 August, the whole Bessarabia (Moldova) is captured by the Red Army. The Russians then went a long way in Romania and on 23 August they reached into the Romanian capital Bucharest. The public opinion turned in the country against Antonescu and of summer 1944 he was deposed and imprisoned. The new government signed a ceasefire and extradited itself to the Soviet Union. The Red Army killed the members from the old fascist regime (including Ion Antonescu) on June 1, 1946.
At the end of the war, Romania was allowed to keep the whole of Transylvania in west and Dobruja from south, but lost Bessarabia/Transnistria and Odessa Oblast in the east (with rich oil reserves) which became parts of the Soviet Union. Bukovina was split in half because in the north part the majority ethnic group was Ukrainian and in the south part Romanian.
Romania and communismEdit
Michael I abdicated the throne and had to leave Romania in 1947 because of the Communists. Romania changed from a monarchy into a republic. The USSR occupied Romania until the late 1950s, when Soviet troops left Romania. During this time, resources in Romania were taken by the Soviet Union due to agreements made by Communist leaders.
After the Soviet troops left Romania, Nicolae Ceauşescu wanted Romania to become more independent from Moscow. Romania started following slightly different foreign policies than Moscow. After the Six-Day War in 1967, Romania began talks with Israel and started relations with the Federal Republic of Germany. Romania started to have their own relations with Arab countries. Romania officials were allowed to participate in peace talks between Israel and Egypt and between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization.
The national debt Romania owed to other countries went from $3 billion to almost $10 billion between 1977 and 1981. The amount of money that Romania owed other countries caused them to rely on banks and other lenders from around the world. President Nicolae Ceauşescu's autarchic ways meant he did not want to rely on other countries and Romania paid back money borrowed from other countries. This affected the Romanian economy. To try to stay in power, Ceauşescu had anyone who disagreed with him arrested and put in prison. Many people were killed or hurt. Almost 60,000 people were put in psychiatric hospitals. Ceauşescu eventually lost power and was killed in the Romanian Revolution of 1989.
1989 to 2007Edit
In 1989, the National Salvation Front came into power. It was led by Ion Iliescu. When they came into power, several other parties from before World War II were remade. These included the Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party, the National Liberal Party and the Romanian Social Democrat Party. In April 1990, as a result of several , protests started. The people who protested did not recognize the results of the election. This was because they thought that members of the National Salvation Front were communists. More and more people protested, and it became a demonstration – a very big protest. This was called the Golaniad, and it became very violent.
When the National Salvation Front lost power, several other parties were made. These were the Social Democratic Party, the Democratic Party, and a couple of other parties from before the war. The Social Democratic Party ruled Romania from 1990 until 1996. Ion Iliescu was the head of state, or person in charge. After 1996, several other parties came into power and lost it. In 2004, Traian Băsescu became the president.
After the Cold War, Romania became closer friends with Western Europe. In 2004, Romania joined NATO and hosted the 2008 summit. The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a member on January 1, 2007.
Romania is the biggest country in southeast Europe by population. It has an area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi). It is the twelfth-largest country in Europe. Most of Romania's border with Serbia and Bulgaria is made by the Danube. The Danube joins the Prut River. The Prut River makes the Moldovan–Romanian border. The Danube then flows into the area of the Black Sea inside Romania. This makes the Danube Delta. The delta is a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site. Some of the other major rivers in Romania are the Siret, the Olt, and the Mureş. The Siret River runs from the north to the south of Moldavia. The Olt River runs from the Carpathian Mountains to Oltenia. The Mureş runs through Transylvania from the east to the west.
The land in Romania is made up of equal parts of mountains, hills, and low-lying areas. The Carpathian Mountains make up a big part of the center of Romania. Fourteen of its mountain ranges are taller than 2,000 m (6,562 ft). The tallest mountain in Romania is Moldoveanu Peak, with a peak altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).
The Danube is the longest river in Romania. Its length inside Romania is about 1,000 kilometres (621 mi). That is almost half of the length of the entire Danube. Almost all of the rivers in Romania are either direct or tributaries of the Danube.
Romania has a climate that changes between temperate and continental climates. The reason for the climate changes is because Romania is near the coast. Romania has four different seasons. The average temperature during the year is 11 °C (51.8 °F) in southern Romania and 8 °C (46.4 °F) in the northern part.
Lots of rain and snow falls on the highest western mountains. Most of this falls as snow. In the southern parts of the country, the amount of rain and snow that falls is around 60 centimetres (23.6 in).
|Others (Russians, Poles, Slovaks, Croats etc.)||50,000||0.2%|
These are the development regions of Romania:
|Total population, year 2010||20,298,570||100%|
Language and cultureEdit
Romania has its own culture because of where it is found. It is the point where 3 different areas meet: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and the Balkans. Romanian culture is a mix of all these areas. The culture of Romania was influenced by the Greeks, Romans, and Slavs.
Romania is a secular state. This means Romania has no national religion. The biggest religious group in Romania is the Romanian Orthodox Church. It is an autocephalous church inside of the Eastern Orthodox communion. In 2002, this religion made up 86.7% of the population. Other religions in Romania include Roman Catholicism (4.7%), Protestantism (3.7%), Pentecostalism (1.5%) and the Romanian Greek-Catholicism (0.9%).
There are 5 other cities in Romania that have a population of more than 300,000 people. These are Iaşi, Cluj-Napoca, Timişoara, Constanţa, and Craiova. Romania also has 5 cities that have more than 200,000 people living in them: Galaţi, Braşov, Ploieşti, Brăila, and Oradea.
Thirteen other cities in Romania have a population of more than 100,000 people.
Long into the 1900s, Romania was still a largely agricultural country. During Communism 1947-1989, the country had planned economy. The transition from planned economy to a market economy after the communist regime led to economic collapse in the 1990s, the reasons was that more money was printed, expensive prices and substantial privatization of the companies, which initially leads to skyrocketing unemployment. The reforms in the 1990s allowed foreign investors for the first time to buy land in Romania. When it was going explosively good for the industry in the Latin countries such as France, Italy and Spain, these countries began to trade with Romania because it is favorite voice country for them to grow in. Foreign companies expanding in Romania since then, and spurs the market.
The Romanian school is obligatory for 10 years. Children also have the opportunity to be part of a voluntary pre-school at an early age 3–6 years. After school, students can voluntarily take the entrance exam to high school, which has a range of practical and theoretical lines. There are over 40 higher educational institutions, including five universities and five technical colleges. Tuition is free and is a hot political commitment even at the university. The country's minorities have the opportunity to receive instruction in their native language. Since 1989, education has been reformed. But it has been slow and the standard of education varies greatly in different parts of the country, education has improved the standard of urban compared to rural areas where quality can be very low. Romania participates fully in the EU's education program.
The living standards were very low at the end of the Communist era, but the situation was just only improved a little bit during the 1990s. On the contrary, the living significantly due caused by the large privatization of jobs that resulted in high unemployment and rising prices. In later years lived yet 2010 nearly 10 percent of the population in absolute poverty and of these, 90% live in rural areas. The State social insurance system have relatively broad coverage but resources are extremely small.
Reforms have been initiated and in 1999 the health insurance became privatized and paid by the employers and the employees. Several thousand local trade unions were founded after the revolution, which were later amalgamated (combined) into federations. These unions and federations have helped organise students, pensioners and the unemployed; because these groups of people all have similar needs, concerns and goals.
By the first quarter of 2011 the average monthly household income is 2,318 Romanian leu (equivalent to approximately £862 USD). The different between countryside and urban area may vary the income is 36 per-cent higher in the urban area than in the countryside.
The most worrying thing is the fact that there are more pensioners than the number of working people. because many who dismissed during the privatizations had per-retirement. Romanian Pensioners average pension at the month is at about 190 euros (equivalent to approximately £250-300 USD). The current low average retirement age (55 years for men and 57 years for women) will be gradually increased until 2014, when it gets 60 years for women and 65 years for men.
Many of the country's Gypsies have no identity cards and are therefore excluded from the social benefit systems, schools and health care. The State-run health care is free, but the care system is neglected and has deteriorated in recent years due to lack of resources and underpaid staff. In many cases,the patients paying "under the table" to get treatment. here is evidence to suggest that a patient's wealth plays an important role in how they receive medical treatment.
Science and technologyEdit
Historically, Romanian researches and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields, such as: aeronautics, medicine, mathematics, computer science/engineering, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry and biology. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Preceding him, Elie Carafoli was a pioneering contributor to the field of aerodynamics in the world.
Victor Babeş discovered more than 50 germs and a cure for a disease named after him, babesiosis; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin. Another biologist, Emil Palade, received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. George Constantinescu created the theory of sonics, while Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and also invented the modern method of refining crude oil. Costin Neniţescu found new methods for the synthesis of pirilium salts, of carbenes, tryptamine, serotonin, two new syntheses for the indole nucleus, and a new method of polymerisation of ethylene.
Several mathematicians distinguished themselves as well, among them: Gheorghe Ţiţeica, Spiru Haret, Grigore Moisil, Miron Nicolescu, Nicolae Popescu and Ştefan Odobleja; the latter is also regarded as the ideological father behind cybernetics.
Notable physicists and inventors also include: Horia Hulubei in atomic physics, Șerban Țițeica in theoretical physics, Mihai Gavrilă specialized in quantum theory and discoverer of the atomic dichotomy phenomenon, Alexandru Proca (known for the first meson theory of nuclear forces and Proca's equations of the vectorial mesonic field), Ştefan Procopiu known for the first theory of the magnetic moment of the electron in 1911 (now known as the Bohr-Procopiu magneton), Theodor V. Ionescu, the inventor of a multiple-cavity magnetron (1935), a hydrogen maser in 1947, 3D imaging for cinema/television in 1924 and hot deuterium plasma studies for controlled nuclear fusion, Ionel Solomon known for the nuclear magnetic resonance theory in solids, Solomon equations and photovoltaic devices, Petrache Poenaru, Nicolae Teclu and Victor Toma, with the latter known for the invention and construction of the first Romanian computer, the CIFA-1 in 1955.
The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania. Romania currently has 1,400 MW of nuclear power capacity by means of one active nuclear power plant (Cernavodă) with 2 reactors, which constitutes around 18% of the national power generation capacity of the country. This makes Romania the 23rd largest user of nuclear power in the world.
The Constitution of Romania is found to be based from the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic. It was passed into law on December 8, 1991. after a referendum was held. 73 amendments were added to the constitution in October of 2003 to bring the constitution of Romania up to code with the constitution of the European Union.
The legislative branch of the Romanian government is known as the Parliament. It contains two chambers – the Senate, containing 140 members, and the Chamber of Deputies, which has 346 members. The members of both chambers are elected every four years through party-list proportional representation.
The judicial branch of the Romanian government is separate from the other branches. It is made up of a system of courts. The court with the most authority is the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania. Other courts, including appeal, county, and local courts also make up the judicial branch of the Romanian Government. The way the system of courts works in Romania is modelled off of the French model of law. It is based on civil law.
The Romanian Army is made up of Land, Air, and Naval Forces, which are all led by a Commander-in-chief. The commander-in-chief is given orders by the Ministry of Defense. During war, the President leads the Army. 90,000 people were in the Romanian Army in 2003: 15,000 civilians and 75,000 military people. Of the 75,000 military people in the Romanian Army, 45,800 are in the land forces, 13,250 are in the air forces, 6,800 are in the naval forces, and 8,800 in other areas of the military.
- "Romanian 2002 census (in Romanian)[[Category:Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro)]]". www.edrc.ro. Retrieved 2010-02-22. URL–wikilink conflict (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, September 2011: Nominal GDP list of countries. Data for the year 2017.
- Data refer to the year 2017. World Economic Outlook Database-September 2011, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Nominal GDP list of countries for the year 2017. World Economic Outlook Database-September 2011, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- Data refer to the year 2017. World Economic Outlook Database-September 2011, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing :: Distribution of family income – Gini index". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 31 December 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Human Development Report 2010" (PDF). United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Official Raport".
- "Report on the Nominations from Luxembourg and Romania for the European Capital of Culture 2007". The Selection Panel for the European Capital of Culture (ECOC) 2007. 2004-04-05. Retrieved 2008-01-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History". The Proceedings of the Friesian School. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
Note: The Vlach ConnectionExternal link in
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Wolff, Robert Lee (January 1948). "Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople". Speculum (A Journal of Mediaeval Studies). 23 (1): 1–34. Retrieved 2008-01-13. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Map of Southern Europe, 1942-1945 from the United States Army Center of Military History via the University of Texas at Austin Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
- Trinkaus, E. (2003), "Early Modern Human Cranial remains from the Peştera cu Oase" (PDF), Journal of Human Evolution, 45: 245–253, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2003.08.003, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-25, retrieved 2008-01-10 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Zilhão, João (2006), "Neanderthals and Moderns Mixed and It Matters", Evolutionary Anthropology, 15: 183–195, doi:10.1002/evan.20110, archived from the original on 2008-02-13, retrieved 2008-01-10 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Herodotus (1859), The Ancient History of Herodotus by Herodotus, translated by William Beloe, Derby & Jackson, pp. 213–217, retrieved 2008-01-10 – via digitized Google Book Search CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions, De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors, retrieved 2008-01-10 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Dacia-Province of the Roman Empire". United Nations of Roma Victor. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
and were found in great quantities in the Western Carpathians. After Trajan's conquest he brought back to Rome over 165 tons of gold and 330 tons of silverCS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Deletant, Dennis (1995). Colloquial Romanian. New York: Routledge. p. 1.
- Matley, Ian (1970). Romania; a Profile. Praeger. p. 85.
- Giurescu, Constantin C. (1972). The Making of the Romanian People and Language. Bucharest: Meridiane Publishing House. pp. 43, 98–101, 141.
- Eutropius; Justin, Cornelius Nepos (1886). Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History. London: George Bell and Sons. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Watkins, Thayer. "The Economic History of the Western Roman Empire".
The Emperor Aurelian recognized the realities of the military situation in Dacia and around 271 A.D. withdrew Roman troops from Dacia leaving it to the Goths. The Danube once again became the northern frontier of the Roman Empire in eastern Europe
- Ghyka, Matila (1841). "A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History". Oxford: B.H. Blackwell Ltd. Archived from the original on 2007-01-25. Retrieved 2008-08-19. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Jordanes (551 AD/CE). Getica, sive, De Origine Actibusque Gothorum. Constantinople. Check date values in:
|year=(help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Iliescu, Vl.; Paschale, Chronicon (1970), Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, II, Bucureşti, pp. 363, 587
- Teodor, Dan Gh. (1995). Istoria României de la începuturi până în secolul al VIII-lea. 2. Bucureşti. pp. 294–325.
- Bóna, István (2001), Köpeczi, Béla (ed.), History of Transylvania: II.3. The Kingdom of the Gepids, Vol. 1, New York: Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – via Columbia University Press
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Bóna, István (2001), Köpeczi, Béla (ed.), History of Transylvania: II.4. The Period of the Avar Rule, vol. 1, New York: Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – via Columbia University Press
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus (950). Constantine Porphyrogenitus De Administrando Imperio. Constantinople. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Xenopol, Alexandru D. (1896), Histoire des Roumains, i, Paris, p. 168
- Ştefănescu, Ştefan (1991), Istoria medie a României, I, Bucharest, p. 114
- Predescu, Lucian (1940), Enciclopedia Cugetarea
- Makkai, László (2001), Köpeczi, Béla (ed.), History of Transylvania: III. Transylvania in the Medieval Hungarian Kingdom (896–1526), vol. 1, New York: Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – via Columbia University Press
|volume=has extra text (help)
Köpeczi, Béla, ed. (2001), History of Transylvania: IV. The First Period of the Principality of Transylvania (1526–1606), vol. 1, New York: Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – via Columbia University Press
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Várkonyi, Ágnes R. (2001), Köpeczi, Béla (ed.), History of Transylvania: VI. The Last Decades of the Independent Principality (1660–1711), 2, New York: Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – via Columbia University Press
- Schoolfield, George C. (2004). A Baedeker of Decadence: Charting a Literary Fashion, 1884-1927. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300047142.
- "VLAD TEPES - The Historical Dracula". www.donlinke.com.
- Count Dracula's Legend, 2006, archived from the original on 2016-01-17 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Marek, Miroslav, Rulers of Moldavia: Mushati family
- St. Stephen the Great Charitable Trust, archived from the original on 2008-07-04, retrieved 2008-07-23 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Orthodox Church in America, St. Stephen the Great - Commemorated on July 2
- The Magyarization Process, GenealogyRO Group CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Kocsis, Karoly; Kocsis-Hodosi, Eszter (1999), Ethnic structure of the population on the present territory of Transylvania (1880-1992), archived from the original on 2008-02-22 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Kocsis, Karoly; Kocsis-Hodosi, Eszter (2001), Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications, p. 102, ISBN 193131375X
- Bobango, Gerald J (1979), The emergence of the Romanian national State, New York: Boulder, ISBN 9780914710516
- (in Russian) San Stefano Preliminary Treaty, 1878
- Modern History Sourcebook: The Treaty of Berlin, 1878 - Excerpts on the Balkans, Berlin, July 13, 1878
- Patterson, Michelle (August 1996), "The Road to Romanian Independence", Canadian Journal of History
- Horne, Charles F. (2009) . "Ion Bratianu's Declaration of War Delivered to the Austrian Minister in Romania on August 28, 1916". Source Records of the Great War. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Text of the Treaty of Trianon". World War I Document Archive. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Bernard Anthony Cook (2001). Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Taylor&Francis. p. 162. ISBN 0815340575.
|url=(help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Malbone W. Graham (October 1944). "The Legal Status of the Bukovina and Bessarabia". The American Journal of International Law. American Society of International Law. 38 (4). Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Statul National Unitar (România Mare 1919 - 1940)publisher=ici.ro" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2010-01-08. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Romania". CIA - The World Factbook. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Romania - Country Background and Profile". ed-u.com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Romania: Soviet Union and Eastern Europe". Country Studies.us. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Middle East policies in Communist Romania". Country Studies.us. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Deletant, Dennis. "New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1989". Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Caraza, Grigore (2004). Aiud însângerat (in Romanian). Chapter IV. Editura Vremea XXI. ISBN 9736450503.
- "Cartea albă a Securităţii". 2. S.R.I. 1997.
- Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (1961-09-30). "Speech at the Plenary session of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers' Party'".
- "NATO update: NATO welcomes seven new members". NATO. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "EU approves Bulgaria and Romania". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "ROMANIA, SERBIA". Retrieved 2008-07-24. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Center. Retrieved 2008-01-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Geography Statistics > Tallest mountains > Mountain". Retrieved 2008-07-24. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Romania: Climate". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-01-10. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- (in Romanian)The 2004 Yearbook (PDF), Romanian National Institute of Statistics, retrieved 2008-08-19 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Climate of Romania". Retrieved 2008-07-24. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "The Ukrainians: Engaging the 'Eastern Diaspora'". By Andrew Wilson. (1999). In Charles King, Neil Melvin (Eds.) Nations Abroad. Wesview Press, pp. 103-132. ISBN 0-8133-3738-0
- "Political relations". Auswärtiges Amt. Archived from the original on 2008-11-30. Retrieved 2009-09-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)Archived
- Moldovan, Tudor (18 February 2006). "The Pension System in Romania". EUROPEAN PAPERS ON THE NEW WELFARE.
- "Romania - Culture". Archived from the original on 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- "Sicilian Peoples: The Romans". Retrieved 2008-07-24. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Census (Report) (in Romanian). Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Preliminary Data for 2011 census" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Population in Romania (in Romanian), Romanian National Institute of Statistics, 1 July 2007, archived from the original on 11 February 2008, retrieved 13 February 2008 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
- "Regeringens webbplats om mänskliga rättigheter" (PDF). www.manskligarattigheter.se.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2012-02-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Only three other countries in the EU plan to increase retirement age above 65".
- "country profiles - Pension Funds Online".
- Insider, Romania; Media, City Compass. "Romanian Parliament committee sets retirement age at 60 for women, 64 for men - Romania Insider - Page 15087".
- "Regeringens webbplats om mänskliga rättigheter" (PDF). www.manskligarattigheter.se.
- "The Solomon equations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-13. Retrieved 2011-08-29. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Solomon Equations and NOE". Prola.aps.org. 1955-03-29. Retrieved 2011-08-29. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Victor Toma- "Tatăl calculatoarelor din țările socialiste". România liberă, July 13, 2007
- "ELI-NP | Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics". Eli-np.ro. Retrieved 2011-08-29. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Romania. 2 (48 ed.). London and New York: Routledge. 2007. pp. 3734–3759. ISBN 9781857434125. Unknown parameter
- "Presentation". High Court of Cassation and Justice - —Romania. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2008-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Romanian Legal system". CIA Factbook. 2000. Retrieved 2008-01-11. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Administrative Organisation of Romanian Territory, on December 31, 2005" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian National Institute of Statistics. Chapter 1.8. Retrieved 2008-08-19. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Ministry of National Defense of Romania (2003-01-21). "Press conference". Press release. http://www.mapn.ro/briefing/030122/030121conf.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Romania.|
- BBC News Country Profile - Romania
- CIA World Factbook - Romania
- US Department of State - Romania
- Federal Research Division, Library of Congress -Romania : a country study
- Exchange Rates Archived 2008-10-28 at the Wayback Machine - from the National Bank of Romania
- Romanian Law and Miscellaneous - English
- Chronology of Romania from the World History Database
- ICI.ro - A comprehensive site about Romania Archived 2008-10-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Treasures of the national library of Romania