|Native to||Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Northern Cyprus, Palestine, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Syria, Turkey, Uzbekistan,|
and by immigrant communities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and other countries of the Turkish diaspora
|Region||Anatolia, Cyprus, Balkans, Caucasus, Central Europe, Western Europe|
|over 77 million worldwide|
|Latin alphabet (Turkish variant)|
Official language in
Republic of Macedonia**
*See Cyprus Dispute.
**In municipalities with more than 20% Turkish speakers.
***Turkish is one of regional languages.
|Regulated by||Turkish Language Association|
Countries with significant Turkish-speaking populations
Turkish used to be written with the Arabic alphabet from about 900 to 1928. However, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk changed it to the Latin alphabet. The Turkish government justified the move as making it much easier to learn to increasing literacy. The literacy rate indeed increased greatly after the reform, from around 20% to over 90%. However, some say that the move was also to distance the country from the Ottoman Empire, whose documents can no longer be read except by a few scholars.
The Latin alphabet was made to reflect the actual sounds of spoken Turkish, rather than simply transcribing the old Ottoman script into a new form. The Turkish alphabet has 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. It represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras.
Turkish is most closely related to other Turkic languages, including Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Uzbek and Kazakh. Another theory is that one of the many Altaic languages, which also include Japanese, Mongolian, and Korean.
- Merhaba = Hello (formal)
- Selam = Hello
- Nasılsın? = How are you?
- İyiyim = I'm fine
- Teşekkür ederim = Thank you (formal)
- Teşekkürler = Thanks
- Sağol = Thank you
- Benim adım .... = My name is ...
- Türkçe bilmiyorum. = I don't know Turkish
- İngilizce biliyor musunuz? = Do you know English?
- Tekrarlar mısınız? = Can you repeat it again?
- Evet = Yes
- Hayır = No
- Belki = Maybe
- Biraz = A little
- Acıktım = I'm hungry
- Dur! = Stop!
- Yapma! = Don't do it!
- İstemiyorum. = I don't want it.