North Macedonia

country in southeastern Europe
(Redirected from Republic of Macedonia)

North Macedonia (Macedonian: Северна Македонија, romanized: Severna Makedonija; officially the Republic of North Macedonia),[11][12] is a country located on the Balkan peninsula in Southeastern Europe.

Republic of North Macedonia
Република Северна Македонија  (Macedonian)
Anthem: Денес над Македонија  (Macedonian)
(English: "Today over Macedonia")
Location of  North Macedonia  (green) on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  North Macedonia  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
42°0′N 21°26′E / 42.000°N 21.433°E / 42.000; 21.433
Official languages
  • Official regional languages
Ethnic groups
  • Macedonian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Gordana Siljanovska-Davkova
Hristijan Mickoski
Afrim Gashi
8 September 1991
• Total
25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) (145th)
• Water (%)
• 2021 census
Neutral decrease 1,832,696 (preliminary results)[4][5][6]
• Density
80.1/km2 (207.5/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$33.822 billion[7]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$12.383 billion[7]
• Per capita
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 30.7[8]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.774[9]
high · 82nd
CurrencyMacedonian denar (MKD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+389
ISO 3166 codeMKD
Internet TLD

It was part of Yugoslavia. North Macedonia is bordered by Serbia, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria. The capital and largest city is Skopje, with more than 500,000 residents. It has many smaller cities. Some important ones are Bitola, Prilep, Tetovo, Kumanovo, Ohrid, Veles, Stip, Strumica, Debar and Kavadarci.

North Macedonia is a member of the United Nations and World Trade Organization (WTO). It joined NATO on 30 March 2020.[13] Since December 2005, it is a candidate for joining the European Union.[14]

The language spoken by the majority of the population is Macedonian. Albanian is also spoken by ethnic Albanians. The country's currency is the Macedonian denar (MKD).



In past centuries the territory which today is the Republic of North Macedonia was ruled by many different states such as Bulgaria and many other empires.

Earliest residents


People have been living in Macedonia for thousands of years. Neolithic people lived in Macedonia from 7000 to 3500 BCE. The Iliad mentions the Kingdom of Paeonia in Macedonia. From 1000 to 1 BCE, Dacians, Thracians,Illyrians, Celts, and Greeks lived in Northern Macedonia.[15]

Roman rule


Towards the end of the 3rd century BCE, the Romans invaded the Balkan peninsula. Illyria was taken over in 9 CE. The North and East of Macedonia were taken over by the Roman Empire in the year 29 CE. They became the Roman province of Moesia. Starting in the 3rd century CE, the borders of Macedonia were being attacked by the Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Avars, and others. In 395 AD, the Roman Empire split in two. They were the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).

Byzantine rule


Although, Macedonia was part of the Byzantine Empire, there was little Byzantine influence. In the mid-6th century, Slavic tribes started to settle in Macedonia. From the 7th century to the 13th century, Byzantine Macedonia was governed by local princes and kings, allied with the Byzantine Empire. In the 9th century, the Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to Macedonia. The people who brought Christianity to Macedonia were saints Cyril and Methodius. Their goal was to bring Christianity and the Cyrillic alphabet to Slavs in Europe.

Ottoman rule


The Ottoman Empire was originally a small city-state in Turkey. The city-state grew, and it invaded Adrianople in 1354. From there, it expanded and took over Turkey. Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, did not get invaded by the Ottomans until 1453. After the Battle of the Maritsa River, the Ottomans conquered southern Serbia and Macedonia. North Macedonia was under Ottoman Rule until 1913.[16]

Yugoslav rule and modern history


After the Ottoman Empire dissolved, North Macedonia became a part of the newly formed country Yugoslavia. From 1914 to 1941, Yugoslavia was a monarchy. During WW2, the Axis powers took over Yugoslavia. Macedonia was taken over by Bulgaria. The Axis powers left Yugoslavia after WW2. After WW2, Yugoslavia became a communist state. Josip Broz Tito was the leader of Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980. On 8 September 1991, Macedonia became an independent state.[17][18]

During the Yugoslav Wars, Macedonia was mostly peaceful. However, in 2001, fighting broke out between ethnic Albanians and Macedonians. The fighting ended with the Ohrid Agreement.



North Macedonia is in the Balkan region, which is in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Serbia to the north, Greece to the south, Albania to the west and Bulgaria to the east.

Macedonia is often called a land of lakes and mountains. Three large lakes are on the borders of Albania and Greece, and there are many smaller ones. Sixteen mountains are higher than 2000 meters above sea level.


Macedonian parliament

The country is a parliamentary system and republic. North Macedonia is run by a parliament, in which there is 120 seats (members). The public elect for the political party they want to rule the country. The leader of the party with the most seats in parliament becomes the prime minister. The prime minister is responsible for leading the government.

The head of state is the president. The president's role is to act as a figurehead and represent the country. The president is elected by the people every four years and is also the head of the military. North Macedonia is divided into 80 municipalities (areas for local government).

Naming dispute with Greece


Greece and the Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia) were arguing over the name "Macedonia". This is because the country of North Macedonia does not cover the entire region of Macedonia (which covers a region of Greece and parts of several other countries). The United Nations called the Republic of North Macedonia, "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM). 'FYROM' was also used by NATO and many other international organisations.

On 17 June 2018, North Macedonia and Greece agreed to the Prespa agreement[19][20] by which the country would change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia. The government completed the necessary constitutional change on 12 February 2019.

  1. National and official language in all aspects of the whole territory of the state and in its international relations.
  2. Co-official language at a state level (excluding defence, central police and monetary policy) and in local self-government units where speakers are 20% or more.


  1. "Census final data" (PDF). 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2022-02-14.
  2. "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 – Book XIII, Skopje, 2005" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  3. "Strategies of symbolic nation-building in West Balkan states: intents and results (completed) - Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages". Archived from the original on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
  4. Simovski: Census has ended successfully, 1,832,696 people enumerated, results by end of March 2022. CIVIL.Today; October 1, 2021 Archived March 26, 2022, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. Alice Taylor, North Macedonia’s Census Points to Significant Population Decrease. EXITnews; 2021/10/01/ Archived 2022-03-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. Balkan Developments, Census in North Macedonia has been successful. Radio Bulgaria; 10/01/21 Archived 2022-03-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. 20 October 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  8. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  9. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. "Св. Климент Охридски е патрон на македонскиот народ и неговата историја". Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.
  11. "Macedonia officially changes its name to North Macedonia". 12 February 2019. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  12. "FYROM is officially renamed North Macedonia |". Archived from the original on 2022-12-29. Retrieved 2022-12-29.
  13. "Из-за коронавируса Северную Македонию приняли в НАТО без свидетелей. Новость в одном фото". BBC News Русская служба (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2021-07-13. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  14. "After Years Of Delay, North Macedonia, Albania Get OK To Begin EU Accession Talks". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 2020-10-22. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
  15. "North Macedonia - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  16. "North Macedonia - History". Encyclopedia Britannica=en. Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  17. "Yugoslavia | History, Map, Flag, Breakup, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2015-08-22. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  18. "North Macedonia - History | Britannica". Archived from the original on 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  19. "Greece and Macedonia sign agreement on name change,| Macedonia News | Al Jazeera". Archived from the original on 2019-01-01. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  20. Kitsantonis, Niki (2018-06-17). "Macedonia and Greece Sign Historic Deal on Name Change". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2021-10-08. Retrieved 2018-12-29.

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